Skip to main content
National Clearinghouse on Homeless Youth and Families

Young Adults

Text Messaging Intervention for Young Smokers Experiencing Homelessness: Lessons Learned From a Randomized Controlled Trial.

Text Messaging Intervention for Young Smokers Experiencing Homelessness: Lessons Learned From a Randomized Controlled Trial.
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

Background: Smoking rates are significantly higher among young people experiencing homelessness than in the general population. Despite a willingness to quit, homeless youth have little success in doing so on their own, and existing cessation resources tailored to this population are lacking. Homeless youth generally enjoy the camaraderie and peer support that group-based programs offer, but continuous in-person support during a quit attempt can be prohibitively expensive. Objective: This study aimed to assess the feasibility and acceptability of an automated text messaging intervention (TMI) as an adjunct to group-based cessation counseling and provision of nicotine patches to help homeless youth quit smoking. This paper outlines the lessons learned from the implementation of the TMI intervention. Methods: Homeless youth smokers aged 18 to 25 years who were interested in quitting (n=77) were recruited from drop-in centers serving homeless youth in the Los Angeles area. In this pilot randomized controlled trial, all participants received a group-based cessation counseling session and nicotine patches, with 52% (40/77) randomly assigned to receive 6 weeks of text messages to provide additional support for their quit attempt. Participants received text messages on their own phone rather than receiving a study-issued phone for the TMI. We analyzed baseline and follow-up survey data as well as back-end data from the messaging platform to gauge the acceptability and feasibility of the TMI among the 40 participants who received it. Results: Participants had widespread (smart)phone ownership—16.4% (36/219) were ineligible for study participation because they did not have a phone that could receive text messages. Participants experienced interruptions in their phone use (e.g., 44% [16/36] changed phone numbers during the follow-up period) but reported being able to receive the majority of messages. These survey results were corroborated by back-end data (from the program used to administer the TMI) showing a message delivery rate of about 95%. Participant feedback points to the importance of carefully crafting text messages, which led to high (typically above 70%) approval of most text messaging components of the intervention. Qualitative feedback indicated that participants enjoyed the group counseling session that preceded the TMI and suggested including more such group elements into the intervention. Conclusions: The TMI was well accepted and feasible to support smoking cessation among homeless youth. Given high rates of smartphone ownership, the next generation of phone-based smoking cessation interventions for this population should consider using approaches beyond text messages and focus on finding ways to develop effective approaches to include group interaction using remote implementation. Given overall resource constraints and in particular the exigencies of the currently ongoing COVID-19 epidemic, phone-based interventions are a promising approach to support homeless youth, a population urgently in need of effective smoking cessation interventions.

Authors
Linnemayr, S., Zutshi, R., Shadel, W., Pedersen, E., DeYoreo, M., Tucker, J.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth

Volume new
9
Issue
4
Year published new
2021

On the fringes: How youth experiencing homelessness conceptualize social and economic inequality-A Photovoice study

On the fringes: How youth experiencing homelessness conceptualize social and economic inequality-A Photovoice study
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This article describes a study that uses an innovative method to translate how youth experience homelessness and view social inequality. This study used Photovoice methods with young adults experiencing homelessness to collaboratively identify issues that are of greatest importance in an open‐ended, exploratory, and inductive manner. Participants selected two concepts to focus their inquiry: freedom and prosperity. Within these concepts, participants discussed nature as a source of inspiration, a desire to better themselves and to change their situations, and passion for contributing to social change by exposing economic inequality and raising awareness about homelessness. (author abstract modified)

Authors
Barman-Adhikari, A., DeChants, J. P., D, M. B., Portillo, A., Bender, K.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

Journal of Community Psychology

Volume new
47
Issue
4
Year published new
2019

Wraparound for Older Youth and Young Adults: Providers Views on Whether and How to Adapt Wraparound

Wraparound for Older Youth and Young Adults: Providers Views on Whether and How to Adapt Wraparound
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This collaborative report from the National Wraparound Initiative and the Pathways Research and Training Center at Portland State looks at how providers modify the Wraparound approach when working with older youth and young adults. The authors conducted a qualitative analysis by conducting interviews with facilitators, peer support providers, and program managers in eight states. This report presents a summary of these interviews and offers suggestions for training and technical assistance for Wraparound programs working with older youth and adults based on these findings. (author abstract modified)

Accession number
25777
Authors
Walker, J.S., Baird, C.
Type new
Paper/Research Report
Organization

National Wraparound Initiative and Research and Training Center on Pathways to Positive Futures

Year published new
2019
Availability

Available for free download on the Childrens Mental Health Network website at: https://www.cmhnetwork.org/resources/10298/

Whats Next? A Theory on Identity Preservation for Young Adults in Supportive Housing

Whats Next? A Theory on Identity Preservation for Young Adults in Supportive Housing
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This journal article describes a qualitative study of 29 young adults (ages 18 to 25) living in permanent supportive housing (PSH) about their feelings of ontological security. The authors define ontological security as a feeling of well-being derived from a sense of order from one’s social and material environment. The study found ontological security (e.g., constancy, routine, control) positively affected the participants’ mental health and well-being, which helped with positive identity construction. An increase in ontological security also related to residents’ social environment and their ability to strengthen social relationships, which supported improved mental health and sense of self. Most young adults in this study regarded living in PSH as an opportunity to start their lives over and imagine their futures in a normative developmental trajectory. 

Accession number
25666
Authors
Henwood, B.F., Redline, B., Semborski, S., Rhoades, H., Rice, E., Wenzel, S.L.
Type new
Journal Article
Organization

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Policy Development and Research

Journal Name

Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research

Volume new
20
Year published new
2018
Availability

Entire periodical available on the HUD Office of Policy Development and Research website at: https://www.huduser.gov/portal/periodicals/cityscpe/vol20num3/Cityscape…

State Index on Youth Homelessness

State Index on Youth Homelessness
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

In partnership with the National Law Center on Homelessness & Poverty, the True Colors Fund developed the State Index on Youth Homelessness (the Index) as a summary of some of the legal, systemic, and environmental barriers youth experiencing homelessness face. The Index looks at 61 metrics in all 50 states and District of Columbia. The metrics evaluate each state’s laws and policies, systems, and environments that affect youth experiencing homelessness and influence state policy and program implementation. The Index provides recommendations for each state on how to better protect the safety, development, health, and dignity of youth experiencing homelessness.

Accession number
25677
Authors
Rush, J., Santos, M.
Type new
Guide/Toolkit
Organization

True Colors Fund and the National Law Center on Homelessness & Poverty

Year published new
2018
Availability

Available free of charge on the True Colors Fund website at: https://truecolorsfund.org/index/

Specialized Case Management for Young Adults in Extended Federal Foster Care

Specialized Case Management for Young Adults in Extended Federal Foster Care
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This brief from the Urban Institute highlights the types of challenges and emerging program and policy practices child welfare agencies and other providers and stakeholders are dealing with to address the needs of transition-age youth in extended foster care. Furthermore, it poses recommendations for creating a responsive child welfare system for young adults since many states have extended foster care eligibility to age 21, and some provide supportive services through age 23. (author abstract modified)

Accession number
25863
Authors
McDaniel, M., Dasgupta, D., Park, Y.
Type new
Brief
Organization

Urban Institute

Year published new
2019
Availability

Available for free download on the Urban Institutes website at: https://www.urban.org/research/publication/specialized-case-management-…

Resident Perspectives on Life in a Transitional Living Program for Homeless Young Adults

Resident Perspectives on Life in a Transitional Living Program for Homeless Young Adults
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This journal article describes a study using a qualitative approach to explore the perceptions of homeless young adults about their experiences as residents of a transitional living program (TLP). The ages of the residents range from 18 to 22. The study asked the TLP residents about their expectations for themselves and others in the program and their perception of the TLP rules and structure. The results show the participants value hard work, self-discipline, and positive attitudes. However, they feel the TLP rules are often excessive and inflexible. The authors conclude that these programs should ensure the rules do not interfere with the healthy development and successful transition among the residents.

Accession number
25774
Authors
Curry, S.R., Petering, R.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal

Volume new
34
Year published new
2017
Availability

Article available with a journal subscription: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10560-017-0488-2

Pathways to High-Quality Jobs for Young Adults

Pathways to High-Quality Jobs for Young Adults
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This report examines the quality of jobs held by a sample of 29-year-olds who experienced disadvantage in adolescence and whether employment, education, or training experiences predict better jobs among this population. Using longitudinal data, the researchers identified factors that contribute to job quality: work-based learning incorporating positive relationships with adults, early experiences in the labor market, and educational credentials and training. Based on their findings, the researchers provide recommendations to improve the employment prospects of young people growing up in disadvantaged households. This study is a collaboration between Child Trends and the Brookings Metropolitan Policy Program. (author abstract modified)

Accession number
25771
Authors
Ross, M., Moore, K.A., Murphy, K., Bateman, N., Demand, A., Sacks, V.
Type new
Paper/Research Report
Organization

Brookings Metropolitan Policy Program and Child Trends

Year published new
2018
Availability

Available for free download on the Brookings website at: https://www.brookings.edu/research/pathways-to-high-quality-jobs-for-yo…

Investigating Health Risk Environments in Housing Programs for Young Adults: Protocol for a Geographically Explicit Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

Investigating Health Risk Environments in Housing Programs for Young Adults: Protocol for a Geographically Explicit Ecological Momentary Assessment Study
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This journal article describes the research protocol of the ongoing Log My Life study at the University of Southern California. This study uses a mixed-methods based on geographically explicit ecological momentary assessment (EMA) through cell phone technology to understand the risk environent of young adults who have either enrolled in housing programs or are currently homeless. The researchers collect data using web-based questionnaires and daily diaries through cell phones to understand the risk environments of young adults with regard to emotional affect, context, and health risk behavior, including infrequent risk behaviors such as sex in exchange for goods and services. They use EMA to look at how the study participants move around their environment throughout the day and whether these movements result in dangerous substance use and sexual activity. Mixing the quantitative and qualitative arms in this study will provide a more complete understanding of differences in risk environments between homeless and housed young adults. (author abstract modified) 

Accession number
25825
Authors
Henwood, B.F., Redline, B., Dzubur, E., Madden, D.R., Rhoades, H., Dunton, G.F., Rice, E., Semborski, S., Tang, Q., Intille, S.S.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

JMIR Research Protocols

Volume new
8
Year published new
2019
Availability

Available for free download on the JMIR Publications website at: https://www.researchprotocols.org/2019/1

Intersection of Homelessness and Mental Health: A Mixed Methods Study of Young Adults Who Accessed Psychiatric Emergency Services

Intersection of Homelessness and Mental Health: A Mixed Methods Study of Young Adults Who Accessed Psychiatric Emergency Services
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This journal article describes a mixed method study that looked at a sample of 54 young adults (ages 18 to 25) who were admitted to a hospital inpatient psychiatric unit. Nearly half reported being homeless in the year before hospitalization and more than a quarter were homeless at the time of admission. The study identified key factors that contributed to both mental health problems and homelessness, including disrupted support networks, fragile family relationships, foster care involvement, substance use, and traumatic events. The researchers found that homelessness was both a facilitator and a barrier for these youth to access mental health services to manage their mental health symptoms. They concluded that multidisciplinary providers need to recognize the overlap of client populations and provide integrated, trauma-informed care to address housing instability, mental health, and substance use. (author abstract modified)

Accession number
25765
Authors
Narendorf, S.C.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

Children and Youth Services Review

Volume new
81
Year published new
2017
Availability

Available for download with a journal subscription or article purchase: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0190740917303304