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National Clearinghouse on Homeless Youth and Families

Predictors

Using a Predictive Risk Model to Identify Youth at Risk for Homelessness

Using a Predictive Risk Model to Identify Youth at Risk for Homelessness
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

The Children’s Bureau, within the Administration for Children and Families (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services), funded a multi-phase grant program to build the evidence base on what works to prevent homelessness among youth and young adults who have been involved in the child welfare system. Known as Youth At-Risk of Homelessness (YARH), this program funded 18 organizations for the first phase for two years. During the planning phase, grantees conducted data analyses to help understand their local population and develop comprehensive service models to improve outcomes in housing, education and training, social well-being, and permanent connections. For the second phase, six of the 18 organizations received funding to refine and test their comprehensive service models with a three-year implementation grant. This issue brief describes the challenges, lessons learned, and next steps of one grantee—United Way of King County in Washington. (author abstract modified)

Accession number
25489
Authors
Noble, C.
Type new
Brief
Organization

Mathematica Policy Research

Series
Youth At-Risk of Homelessness (YARH) Lessons from the Field
Year published new
2017
Availability

Available for free download on the Mathematica Policy Research website at:https://www.mathematica-mpr.com/our-publications-and-findings/publicati…

Pretesting a Human Trafficking Screening Tool in the Child Welfare and Runaway and Homeless Youth Systems

Pretesting a Human Trafficking Screening Tool in the Child Welfare and Runaway and Homeless Youth Systems
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

Despite the fact that youth involved in the child welfare (CW) and runaway and homeless youth (RHY) systems are particularly vulnerable to being trafficked, there is no consensus screening tool to identify trafficking experiences among such youth. In order to better serve youth trafficking victims, a Human Trafficking Screening Tool (HTST), along with a Short Form version (HTST-SF), was developed and pretested with 617 RHY- and CW-involved youth, ages 12 to 24, across 14 RHY and CW settings in New York, Texas, and Wisconsin in 2016. The survey captured their trafficking experiences as well as demographic characteristics and other life experiences related to trafficking (e.g., running away, drug abuse). Overall, the HTST and HTST-SF performed equally well at capturing trafficking experiences for most youth. Practitioners assessed the tool as easy to administer and the youths responses as truthful and indicating understanding of the questions. Responses to the HTST were correlated to known trafficking risk factors and outcomes, including running away from home, being kicked out of ones home, abusing prescription or over-the-counter drugs, trading sex for something of value on their own, being arrested, and seeking help. In addition, the HTST correctly predicted trafficking victimization. Additional testing of youth under age 18 and youth in CW settings, in addition to further validation work with a nationally representative sample of youth, is recommended. (Author Abstract Modified)  

Accession number
25402
Authors
Dank, M., Yahner, J., Yu, L., Vasquez-Noriega, C., Gelatt, J., Pergamit, M.
Type new
Paper/Research Report
Organization

John Jay College of Criminal Justice, New York, NY

Year published new
2017
Availability

Available free of charge at HHS Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation: https://aspe.hhs.gov/system/files/pdf/257786/Pretesting.pdf.

Predictors of Adolescents First Episode of Homelessness Following Substance Use Treatment

Predictors of Adolescents First Episode of Homelessness Following Substance Use Treatment
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This journal article describes a study that sought to identify predictors of a young person’s first episode of homelessness during the 12 months after substance use treatment entry. The researchers used data from a longitudinal study of adolescents (n=17,911; aged 12 to 17 years) receiving substance use treatment throughout the U.S. The participants completed surveys at intake and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month intervals after intake. After excluding adolescents who reported previous experiences of homelessness, 5% of the study participants reported their first episode of homelessness over the 12 months after treatment intake. The final models indicate that those who were older, male, reported more victimization experiences, mental health problems, family problems, deviant peer relationships, and substance use problems (more treatment episodes and illicit drug dependence) were more likely to report experiencing homelessness. The findings show that Hispanic/Latino adolescents were less likely to experience homelessness compared with white adolescents. The results point to the important risk and protective factors that can be assessed at treatment entry to identify adolescents at greater risk of experiencing their first episode of homelessness. (author abstract modified)

Accession number
25884
Authors
DiGuiseppi, G.T., Davis, J.P., Leightley, D., Rice, E.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

Journal of Adolescent Health

Volume new
66
Year published new
2020
Availability

Predicting Sexual Behaviors Among Homeless Young Adults: Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

Predicting Sexual Behaviors Among Homeless Young Adults: Ecological Momentary Assessment Study
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This journal article describes a study that used ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) to examine real-time factors to determine the predictors of sexual activity among homeless youth given the disproportionately high prevalence of HIV infection among this population (homeless youth are six to 12 times more likely to become infected with HIV than housed youth). The researchers recruited 66 youth experiencing homelessness, ages 18 to 24, from a drop-in center in Houston, Texas. The participants were issued mobile phones that prompted brief EMAs five times a day for 21 days. The EMA items assessed near real-time sexual behaviors, thoughts, stress, emotions, and environmental factors. The findings showed that 70 percent of participants were sexually active during the reporting period and many engaged in high-risk behaviors such as having unprotected sex and sharing needles while injecting drugs. The researchers conclude that using real-time EMA data was successful in predicting sexual intercourse among the sample of predominately unsheltered homeless youth. They found that sexual urge and drug use accounts for increased odds of engaging in sexual activity on any given day; therefore, interventions targeting sexual urge and drug use may help predict sexual activity among a population at high risk for HIV.

Accession number
25571
Authors
Santa Maria, D., Padhye, N., Yang, Y., Gallardo, K., Businelle, M.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

JMIR Public Health and Surveillance

Volume new
4
Year published new
2018
Availability

Available free of charge online at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5915668/

Human Trafficking of Minors and Childhood Adversity in Florida

Human Trafficking of Minors and Childhood Adversity in Florida
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This journal article describes a study examining the link between human trafficking of minors and childhood adversity. The authors compared the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and cumulative childhood adversity (ACE score) among a sample of 913 juvenile justice-involved boys and girls in Florida for whom the Florida child abuse hotline accepted human trafficking abuse reports between 2009 and 2015 with those of a matched sample. ACE composite scores were higher and a score of 6 ACEs indicative of child maltreatment was more prevalent among youths who had human trafficking abuse reports. Sexual abuse was the strongest predictor of human trafficking: the odds of human trafficking were 2.52 times greater for girls and 8.21 times greater for boys who had histories of sexual abuse. Maltreated youths are more susceptible to exploitation in human trafficking. Sexual abuse in connection with high ACE scores may serve as a key predictor of exploitation in human trafficking for both boys and girls. (Author Abstract Modified)

Accession number
25395
Authors
Reid, J.A., Baglivio, M.T., Piquero, A.R., Greenwald, M.A., Epps, N.
Type new
Journal Article
Organization

Criminology Program, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg, FL.

Journal Name

American Journal of Public Health

Volume new
107
Year published new
2017
Availability

Available by subscription or purchase at the journal website: http://ajph.aphapublications.org/toc/ajph/107/2.