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National Clearinghouse on Homeless Youth and Families

Mental Health Problems

The Individual Placement and Support Model of Supported Employment for Street-involved Youth With Mental Illness

The Individual Placement and Support Model of Supported Employment for Street-involved Youth With Mental Illness
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This book chapter describes the individual placement and support (IPS) model of supported employment and its application to youth who are homeless. Youth who are homeless have high unemployment rates compared with their housed peers. Housed youth ages 16 to 24 in the general population have unemployment rates ranging between 8 percent and 17 percent, whereas unemployment rates for youth who are homeless range from 39 percent to 71 percent across various samples of youth living on the street or in shelters. The IPS model is an evidence-based vocational intervention that targets individuals who have severe mental illness with customized, long-term, and integrated vocational and clinical services to help them gain and maintain competitive employment. The IPS model follows eight supported employment principles: 1) zero exclusion, i.e., all clients who want to participate are eligible; 2) integration of vocational and mental health treatment services; 3) competitive employment; 4) benefits counseling; 5) rapid job search; 6) follow-along supports; 7) client job preferences influence the type of job sought and nature of support; and 8) systematic job development. In a pilot study investigating an IPS adaptation, researchers recruited from a service agency 20 young adults with mental illness who were homeless to receive the IPS intervention; a control group of 16 homeless young adults with mental illness who received services from a different agency was also recruited. They hypothesized that youth in the IPS group would have greater improvement compared with controls in five areas: 1) ever worked rate; 2) working at follow-up rate; 3) monthly work rate; 4) weekly work hours; and 5) weekly income. The study found that IPS participants were more likely than the control group to have worked at some point during the 10-month study (85 percent vs. 38 percent). Working at follow-up was reported by 67 percent of the IPS group and 25 percent of the control group. The IPS model is adaptable to work with youth with mental illness who are homeless. 

Accession number
25438
Authors
Ferguson, K.M.
Type new
Book Chapter
Organization

Toronto, Canada: Canadian Observatory on Homelessness Press

Year published new
2018
Availability

Available for download free of charge from the Homeless Hub, a service of the Canadian Observatory on Homelessness at http://homelesshub.ca/sites/default/files/COH-MentalHealthBook.pdf.

Role of Social Environmental Protective Factors on Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms Among Midwestern Homeless Youth

Role of Social Environmental Protective Factors on Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms Among Midwestern Homeless Youth
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This journal article describes a study conducted to examine how social environmental factors affect mental health outcomes of homeless youth. The study collected longitudinal data on 150 homeless youth ages 16 to 22 in two Midwestern cities in the United States. Using a social stress framework, the study examined gender, sexual orientation, and the number of times youth had run away, along with whether the youth had participated in foster care and whether the youth had been physically victimized while on the street. The framework also measured the degree to which the youth felt they had social support and positive role models in their lives. The researchers posited that runaway and homeless youth who fall into socially stigmatized categories based on their gender or sexual orientation would present with more depressive symptoms and higher levels of anxiety than their non-stigmatized counterparts in similar circumstances based on length of time on the street. They also questioned whether protective factors helped reduce poor mental health outcomes for study participants, regardless of social stigmatization status. Results revealed that numerous stressors, such as physical abuse and running away from home more frequently, were associated with greater depressive symptoms and elevated anxiety. Having mentors and family and friends from home that youth can rely on resulted in more positive social support, which subsequently lowered risk for depressive symptoms and anxiety during the second interview.

Accession number
25447
Authors
Tyler, Kimberley A., Schmitz, Rachel M., Ray, Colleen M.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

Journal of Research on Adolescence

Volume new
28
Year published new
2017
Availability

Full-text article available for free download at: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/jora.12326

Responding to Mental Health Concerns on the Front Line: Building Capacity at a Crisis Shelter for Youth Experiencing Homelessness

Responding to Mental Health Concerns on the Front Line: Building Capacity at a Crisis Shelter for Youth Experiencing Homelessness
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This book chapter describes activities undertaken by Covenant House Toronto to build its capacity to respond to mental health challenges of the young people it serves. Research indicates that 30 to 40 percent of homeless youth experience major depression, bipolar disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and substance use. Data for Covenent House Toronto show that about 30 percent of the young people in its emergency shelters have a serious mental health concern, including thoughts of suicide. Shelters face numerous challenges in supporting homeless youth with mental health issues, including that youth present with a wide continuum of symptoms, homeless youth tend to access services sporadically over a long period, and many youth workers lack the expertise and skill set necessary to identify and address most mental health concerns. Among the strategies implemented by Covenant House Toronto are: 1) providing mental health care with trained counselors and clinicians in a drop-in setting; 2) increasing staff training opportunities; 3) employing a strengths-based philosophy of care that draws on the notion of resilience; 4) developing partnerships with university-based researchers and mental health professionals; and 5) partnering with mental health organizations that can work directly with youth. The authors recommend that practitioners in other organizations put supports in place that meet youth where they are, secure young peoples basic needs and develop relationships, and establish meaningful partnerships.  

Accession number
25436
Authors
Noble, A., Howes, C.
Type new
Book Chapter
Organization

Toronto, Canada: Canadian Observatory on Homelessness Press

Year published new
2018
Availability

Available for download free of charge from the Homeless Hub, a service of the Canadian Observatory on Homelessness at http://homelesshub.ca/sites/default/files/COH-MentalHealthBook.pdf.

Promoting Positive Pathways to Adulthood: Pathways Transition Training Toolkit

Promoting Positive Pathways to Adulthood: Pathways Transition Training Toolkit
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This toolkit is designed to accompany the Promoting the Positive Pathways to Adulthood (PPPA) online training modules. The PPPA training develops the capabilities of direct service providers who work with youth and young adults ages 14 to 29 who have serious mental health needs. The training is also intended for use by peer support and family service providers. To assist with implementation, the toolkit includes practice scenarios, video segments with discussion questions, and role plays based on real-life situations.

Accession number
25644
Authors
Jivanjee, P., Brennan, E.M., Gonzalez-Prats, M.C., Melton, R., Lewis, K.H.
Type new
Guide/Toolkit
Organization

Research and Training Center for Pathways to Positive Futures, Portland State University

Year published new
2016
Availability

Predicting Repeated and Persistent Family Homelessness: Do Families Characteristics and Experiences Matter?

Predicting Repeated and Persistent Family Homelessness: Do Families Characteristics and Experiences Matter?
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This brief from the ACF Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation (OPRE), looks at whether family characteristics can identify repeated or persistent experiences of homelessness before and after a shelter stay. OPRE analyzed data of 2,282 families from the larger Family Options Study to determine if practitioners in the field can identify families who will experience repeated or persistent homelessness and thus will need additional support.

Accession number
25714
Authors
Glendening, Z., Shinn, M.
Type new
Brief
Organization

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation

Series
Homeless Families Research Brief
Year published new
2018
Availability

Available free of charge from the ACF OPRE website: https://www.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/opre/opre_persistent_homele…

Parenting and Homeless: Profiles of Young Adult Mothers and Fathers in Unstable Housing Situations

Parenting and Homeless: Profiles of Young Adult Mothers and Fathers in Unstable Housing Situations
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This journal article looks at the service needs of young adults who are experiencing homelessness while they are also pregnant or parenting. The researchers used data from a survey of homeless and unstably housed young adults, ages 18 to 24, collected over four weeks to examine the characteristics, risk factors, and protective factors of homeless parents (n=109) compared with other homeless young adults (n=243). They further compared differences between mothers (n=61) and fathers (n=48). The study identifies unique risk factors and protective profiles for homeless parents and discusses the implications for service delivery needs of this subpopulation of homeless youth.

Accession number
25685
Authors
Narendorf, S.C., Jennings, S.W., Maria, D.S.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

Families in Society

Volume new
97
Year published new
2016