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Homeless Youth

Trauma and homelessness in youth: psychopathology and intervention.

Trauma and homelessness in youth: psychopathology and intervention.
Abstract

Youth runaway behavior and homelessness (RHY) in the U.S. is increasingly common, with prevalence estimated at 1–1.7 million youth. RHY have multiple, overlapping problems often including poor physical and mental health, frequent street victimization, and histories of physical and sexual abuse. Further, current street victimization interacts with childhood abuse to produce complex, unique presentations of traumatic symptoms and related disorders in runaway and homeless youth. This review paper explores (1) the role of childhood trauma in the genesis of runaway and homeless behavior, and (2) how childhood trauma interacts with street victimization to create vulnerability to psychopathology. In response to the trauma needs of RHY, we conducted a systematic review of the state of the current literature on trauma-informed interventions for RHY. We conclude that the field currently lacks empirically validated trauma interventions in RHY. However, theoretically plausible frameworks do exist and could be the basis for future research and intervention development.

Authors
Davies, B.R. & Allen N.B.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

Clinical Psychology Review

Volume new
54
Source

33_Davies_2017.pdf

Year published new
2017

Providing Solutions to LGBT Homeless Youth: Lessons from Baltimore’s Youth Empowered Society.

Providing Solutions to LGBT Homeless Youth: Lessons from Baltimore’s Youth Empowered Society.
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

In the United States, nearly 1.7 million youth under the age of 18 run away from home and often end up homeless each year. Reports estimate that between 20% and 40% of the runaway and homeless youth population identifies as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) (Durso & Gates, 2012; Kaiser Family Foundation, 2014). This suggests that as many as 80,000 LGBT youth are homeless for over a week each year (National Alliance to End Homelessness, 2012). In addition, LGBT youth are more likely to suffer from poverty, substance abuse, violence, mental illness, and attempted suicide as a result of harassment and discrimination (Cray, Miller, & Durso, 2013; Kaiser Family Foundation, 2014; Swan, 2014). Grounded in social equity theory (Frederickson, 2010) and intersectionality (Crenshaw, 1991), this article argues that additional legal protections are necessary in order to ensure the constitutional rights of LGBT youth. A case study of the Youth Empowered Society (YES) in Baltimore City is provided as an example of a service-delivery model for this vulnerable population. Best practices are identified and anti-discrimination policies are recommended.

Authors
Dolamore, S., & Naylor, L. A.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

Public Integrity

Volume new
20
Issue
6
Year published new
2018

An Adapted Life Skills Empowerment Program for Homeless Youth: Preliminary Findings.

An Adapted Life Skills Empowerment Program for Homeless Youth: Preliminary Findings.
Abstract

Homeless youth are a difficult to reach subgroup of homeless individuals who require a unique level of intervention given their specific vulnerabilities as young people. They experience higher levels of trauma than their housed counterparts and lack parental guidance around concrete life skills as well as emotional support. This article provides a description of the adaptation process of a pilot life skills empowerment program designed to help homeless youth integrate successfully into the community by providing life skills training, emotional support, and social justice awareness. Youth participated in twice weekly group sessions and one-to-one mentoring with community volunteers. The adapted program was piloted in 3 cycles with small groups totaling 20 youth over the course of 18 months. Mixed methods were used to evaluate youths’ experiences in the program. While the sample size was too small to detect statistical significance, scores on validated measures (Antonovsky’s Sense of Coherence measurement tool and the Post-Traumatic Check-list Civilian version) demonstrated improvements in coping and sense of coherence and decreases in trauma symptoms. Qualitative findings supported the quantitative trends, demonstrating that youth felt more confident and hopeful about their futures, were able to set goals for themselves, and begin training programs and jobs. Youth were also able to develop trusting and meaningful relationships with mentors, staff, and peers. Implications for future program development and practice, future research, and social services education are discussed.

Authors
Sisselman-Borgia, A.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

Child &Youth Services

Volume new
42
Issue
1
Year published new
2021

Improving program implementation and client engagement in interventions addressing youth homelessness: A meta-synthesis.

Improving program implementation and client engagement in interventions addressing youth homelessness: A meta-synthesis.
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

In this meta-synthesis of current findings on youth interventions, the authors explore common programmatic or contextual factors that researchers and/or practitioners identify as contributing to the successful implementation of an intervention for homeless and unstably housed youth; and (2) that youth and practitioners identify as hindering successful implementation of an intervention for these youth? Two primary themes regarding factors that support successful implementation and engagement were identified: (1) Organizational and system-wide policies can shape the quality and duration of interventions, and (2) Staff behaviors and training are paramount to the success of many interventions. Results further highlight organizational and system-wide policies and staffing behaviors and training needs. The authors conclude that their review supports services that emphasize empowerment and anti-paternalism, and increased attention to racial and LGBTQ equity in future exploration of implementation and engagement within programs designed for youth experiencing homelessness. (author abstract modified)

Authors
Curry, S.R., Baiocchi, A., Tully, B.A., Garst, N., Bielz, S., Kugley,S., & Morton, M.H.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

Children and Youth Services Review

Volume new
120
Year published new
2021

Prevalence and Correlates of Sex Trafficking among Homeless and Runaway Youths Presenting for Shelter Services.

Prevalence and Correlates of Sex Trafficking among Homeless and Runaway Youths Presenting for Shelter Services.
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

The study reported in this article assessed prevalence and demographic correlates of sex trafficking in a purposive sample of 270 young people experiencing homelessness in three U.S. cities (Philadelphia; Phoenix; and Washington, DC) and at five host agencies. Participants were 57% male, 38% female, 4% transgender, and 1% other. The average age of participants was 20.7 years (SD = 2.0 years). The majority of the participants were African American (56%), followed by white (14%) and multiracial (14%). The Human Trafficking Interview and Assessment Measure detected that nearly one in five young people were victims of sex trafficking, either due to force, fraud, or coercion (FFC); age; or both. Those who were sex trafficked were more likely than those who were not sex trafficked to be female, sexual minorities, or Latino and to have either dropped out of high school or obtained a GED. Differences between being trafficked due to FFC and being trafficked due to age were also investigated. Findings support the need for development of targeted prevention and intervention efforts for young people experiencing homelessness that address sex trafficking victimization and related risk factors.

Authors
Greeson, J.K.P., Treglia, D., Schilling Wolfe, D., & Wasch, S.
Type new
Paper/Research Report
Journal Name

Social Work Research

Volume new
43
Issue
2
Year published new
2019

Sex Trafficking and LGBQT+ Youth

Sex Trafficking and LGBQT+ Youth
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

Yes

Abstract

12 Sex Trafficking and LGBQT+ Youth. Polaris Project Research Brief 2019 Polaris Project. https://polarisproject.org/resources/sex-trafficking-and-lgbtq-youth/ Sex trafficking; LGBTQ youth; Homeless youth; Safe Harbor Laws No Nearly 40% of homeless youth identify as LGBTQ+, compared to 7% of the general population. These youth may face homelessness for reasons connected to their identities, such as family rejection, prior abuse or neglect, bullying in school, or social discrimination and marginalization. Youth without safe shelter and social supports are at higher risk of trafficking and exploitation. Traffickers exploit their needs and vulnerabilities to compel them into sex or labor trafficking. LGBTQ+ youth may be trafficked by intimate partners, family members, friends, or strangers. Sex Trafficking and LGBTQ Youth, provides an introduction to sex trafficking for LGBTQ+ youth providers and others who are new to the issue of human trafficking. This resource provides indicators of sex trafficking, recommendations on how LGBTQ+ serving organizations can get involved in anti-trafficking efforts, and information on how to get assistance for LGBTQ+ youth survivors of sex trafficking.

Authors
Polaris Project
Type new
Research Brief
Organization

Polaris Project

Year published new
2019

Homelessness in School-Age Children and Youth: A Scoping Review of the Literature

Homelessness in School-Age Children and Youth: A Scoping Review of the Literature
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

Despite reports that over 1.3 million school-age children (ages 5–18) were homeless in 2019, little is known about the effects of homelessness on their overall health and well-being. To better understand where gaps exist, a scoping review of the literature was conducted to identify studies of the physical, mental, and behavioral health risks and outcomes of school-age children experiencing homelessness or housing instability. Following the Joanna Briggs Institute framework and Preferred Reporting Items (PRISMA) guidelines, seven electronic databases were searched using key words: homelessness, children, health, and well-being. Of the 4,372 records, 23 articles met inclusion criteria. Most examined mental health and high-risk activities or behavioral risks related to school achievement. Few studies tracked the long-term health outcomes of homeless school-age children. Findings have implications for school nurses who have contact with children experiencing homelessness and are in position to intervene to prevent negative health sequelae in this vulnerable population.

Authors
Gultekin, L.E., Brush, B.L., Ginier, E., Cordom, A., & Dowdell, E.B.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

The Journal of School Nursing

Volume new
36
Issue
1
Year published new
2020

Perceived Impacts, Acceptability, and Recommendations for Ecological Momentary Assessment Among Youth Experiencing Homelessness: Qualitative Study.

Perceived Impacts, Acceptability, and Recommendations for Ecological Momentary Assessment Among Youth Experiencing Homelessness: Qualitative Study.
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

Background: The use of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to study youth experiencing homelessness (YEH) behaviors is an emerging area of research. Despite high rates of participation and potential clinical utility, few studies have investigated the acceptability and recommendations for EMA from the YEH perspective. Objective: This study aimed to describe the perceived benefits, usability, acceptability, and barriers to the use of EMA from the homeless youth perspective. Methods: YEH were recruited from a larger EMA study. Semi-structured exit interviews were performed using an interview guide that focused on the YEH experience with the EMA app and included perceived barriers and recommendations for future studies. Data analyses used an inductive approach with thematic analysis to identify major themes and subthemes. Results: A total of 18 YEH aged 19-24 years participated in individual and group exit interviews. The EMA was highly acceptable to YEH and they found the app and EMA surveys easy to navigate. Perceived benefits included increased behavioral and emotional awareness with some YEH reporting a decrease in their high-risk behaviors as a result of participation. Another significant perceived benefit was the ability to use the phones for social support and make connections to family, friends, and potential employers. Barriers were primarily survey and technology related. Survey-related barriers included the redundancy of questions, the lack of customizable responses, and the timing of survey prompts. Technology-related barriers included the “freezing” of the app, battery charge, and connectivity issues. Recommendations for future studies included the need to provide real-time mental health support for symptomatic youth, to create individually customized questions, and to test the use of personalized motivational messages that respond to the EMA data in real time. Conclusions: YEH are highly receptive to the use of EMA in studies. Further studies are warranted to understand the impact of EMA on YEH behaviors. Incorporating the YEH perspective into the design and implementation of EMA studies may help minimize barriers, increase acceptability, and improve participation rates in this hard-to-reach, disconnected population.

Authors
Acorda, D., Businelle, M., & Santa Maria, D.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

JMIR Formative Research

Volume new
5
Issue
4
Year published new
2021

Research Brief #2 – Support Systems for Youth: How to Maximize Youth’s Networks in Prevention Efforts.

Research Brief #2 – Support Systems for Youth: How to Maximize Youth’s Networks in Prevention Efforts.
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This research brief focuses on social network characteristics as important determinants of social and health experience and outcomes for YYA experiencing homelessness. It shares recommendations from the research to help programs work with their young people to strengthen these key relationships. (author abstract modified)

Authors
Sohn, J.
Type new
Brief
Organization

Canadian Observatory n Homelessness

Year published new
2021

Overcoming Rural Specific Obstacles to Ending Youth Homelessness

Overcoming Rural Specific Obstacles to Ending Youth Homelessness
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This brief describes the offerings of community-based solutions to address homelessness in rural Youth Homelessness Demonstration Program (YHDP) sites. The brief offers community-based solutions to these obstacles to provide rural partners with ideas on addressing their own obstacles towards ending youth homelessness. (author abstract modified)

Authors
HUD
Type new
Brief
Organization

The Department of Housing and Urban Development

Source

Homeless youth, Youth experiencing homelessness, Homelessness and rural communities, Youth, Community initiative

Year published new
2021