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National Clearinghouse on Homeless Youth and Families

Drug Use/Abuse

The Relative Influence of Injunctive and Descriptive Social Norms on Methamphetamine, Heroin, and Injection Drug Use Among Homeless Youth: The Impact of Different Referent Groups

The Relative Influence of Injunctive and Descriptive Social Norms on Methamphetamine, Heroin, and Injection Drug Use Among Homeless Youth: The Impact of Different Referent Groups
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This journal article describes a study that applied social network theory to understand how different types of social network norms, along with individual demographic and socioeconomic variables, are associated with recent use of methamphetamine, heroin, and intravenous drugs among homeless youth. The study assessed the relative influence of both injunctive and descriptive norms in the context of different referent groups (i.e., family, street peers, home-based peers, and staff members) on methamphetamine, heroin, and injection drug use behaviors of homeless youth in the past 30 days. The researchers collected cross-sectional data from a sample of 911 homeless youth, ages 14 to 25, at three drop-in centers in Los Angeles. The study consisted of two parts: a social network interview and a computerized self-administered survey. Findings indicate the need to carefully consider the diversity of homeless youths’ networks in designing substance use interventions. Furthermore, the researchers contend that the injunctive norms (i.e., objections to drug use) are associated with reduced drug use and should be considered when developing substance use interventions. Most interventions use social or descriptive norms that focus on changing the perceptions of the prevalence of drug use behavior or altering the drug user’s existing social network.

Accession number
25565
Authors
Barman-Adhikari, A., Craddock, J., Bowen, E., Das, R., Rice, E.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

Journal of Drug Issues

Volume new
48
Year published new
2018
Availability

Available for download via purchase or subscription at http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0022042617726080

The Relationship Between Substance Use Indicators and Child Welfare Caseloads

The Relationship Between Substance Use Indicators and Child Welfare Caseloads
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This brief presents results from a statistical analysis examining the relationship between indicators of substance use prevalence and child welfare caseloads. The analysis used data on child welfare caseload rates and indicators of substance use prevalence from 2011 through 2016 for most U.S. counties. The study found that nationally, rates of drug overdose deaths and drug-related hospitalizations have a positive relationship with child welfare caseload rates, after accounting for county socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. These substance use indicators correlate with rates of more complex and severe child welfare cases. Increases in rates of overdose deaths and drug-related hospitalizations are associated wwith a higher proportion of children entering foster care after reports of child maltreatment. Opioid-related hospitalization rates have a relationship with caseload rates comparable to that of other substance types, though alcohol has a stronger relationship than any illicit or prescription substance. Although there is a positive association between the substance use measures and child welfare caseload rates, this association cannot be positively identified as causal. Substance use, including opioid misuse, has downstream effects on childrens welfare and family stability, and these in turn can place a substantial burden on communities. (Author Abstract Modified)

Accession number
25426
Authors
Ghertner, R., Baldwin, M., Crouse, G., Radel, L., Waters, A.
Type new
Brief
Organization

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation

Series
ASPE Research Briefs
Year published new
2018
Availability

Available free of charge from HHS Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation at https://aspe.hhs.gov/pdf-report/relationship-between-substance-use-indi….

Substance Use, the Opioid Epidemic, and the Child Welfare System: Key Findings From a Mixed Methods Study

Substance Use, the Opioid Epidemic, and the Child Welfare System: Key Findings From a Mixed Methods Study
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This brief presents key findings from a mixed methods study examining how substance use affects child welfare systems across the country. The study combined statistical modeling and qualitative data collection which documented the perspectives and experiences of child welfare administrators and practitioners, substance use treatment administrators and practitioners, judges and other legal professionals, law enforcement officials, and other service providers. Results indicate that nationally, rates of drug overdose deaths and drug-related hospitalizations have a statistical relationship with child welfare caseloads (i.e., rates of child protective services reports, substantiated reports, and foster care placements). Generally, counties with higher overdose death and drug hospitalization rates have higher caseload rates. In addition, these substance use indicators correlate with rates of more complex and severe child welfare cases. Several major challenges affect how child welfare agencies and families interact with substance use treatment options, including medication-assisted treatment for opioid use disorder. Family-friendly treatment options are limited, and caseworkers, courts, and other providers often misunderstand how treatment works and lack guidelines on how to incorporate it into child welfare practice. Child welfare agencies and their community partners are struggling to meet families needs. Haphazard substance use assessment practices, barriers to collaboration with substance use treatment providers and other stakeholders, and shortages of foster homes and trained staff undermine the effectiveness of agencies responses to families. (Author Abstract Modified)

Accession number
25425
Authors
Radel, L., Baldwin, M., Crouse, G., Ghertner, R., Waters, A.
Type new
Brief
Organization

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation

Series
ASPE Research Briefs
Year published new
2018
Availability

Available free of charge from HHS Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation at https://aspe.hhs.gov/pdf-report/substance-use-opioid-epidemic-and-child…

Substance Use, the Opioid Epidemic, and Child Welfare Caseloads: Methodological Details From a Mixed Methods Study

Substance Use, the Opioid Epidemic, and Child Welfare Caseloads: Methodological Details From a Mixed Methods Study
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This report presents key findings from a mixed methods study examining how substance use affects child welfare systems across the country. The study combined statistical modeling and qualitative data collection which documented the perspectives and experiences of child welfare administrators and practitioners, substance use treatment administrators and practitioners, judges and other legal professionals, law enforcement officials, and other service providers. Results indicate that nationally, rates of drug overdose deaths and drug-related hospitalizations have a statistical relationship with child welfare caseloads (i.e., rates of child protective services reports, substantiated reports, and foster care placements). Generally, counties with higher overdose death and drug hospitalization rates have higher caseload rates. In addition, these substance use indicators correlate with rates of more complex and severe child welfare cases. Several major challenges affect how child welfare agencies and families interact with substance use treatment options, including medication-assisted treatment for opioid use disorder. Family-friendly treatment options are limited, and caseworkers, courts, and other providers often misunderstand how treatment works and lack guidelines on how to incorporate it into child welfare practice. Child welfare agencies and their community partners are struggling to meet families needs. Haphazard substance use assessment practices, barriers to collaboration with substance use treatment providers and other stakeholders, and shortages of foster homes and trained staff undermine the effectiveness of agencies responses to families. The report includes discussion guides for child welfare administrators and practitioners, substance use treatment administrators and practitioners, and other administrators and practitioners. (Author Abstract Modified)

Accession number
25560
Authors
Waters, A., Baldwin, M., Crouse, G., Ghertner, R., Radel, L.
Type new
Paper/Research Report
Organization

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation

Series
ASPE Research Brief
Year published new
2018
Availability

Full report available free of charge from HHS Office of the Assitant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation at: https://aspe.hhs.gov/system/files/pdf/259241/MethodologicalDetailsMixed…

Strategies to Address the Intersection of the Opioid Crisis and Homelessness

Strategies to Address the Intersection of the Opioid Crisis and Homelessness
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This brief identifies five strategies that communities, providers, and policy makers can use to address the intersection of homelessness and the opioid crisis and highlights resources developed by federal and national partners to support such efforts. It includes information about the first-ever report released by the Office of the Surgeon General on this issue called Facing Addiction in America: The Surgeon General’s Report on Alcohol, Drugs, and Health. The brief also includes links to webinars from the National Health Care for the Homeless Council on this topic and a toolkit for law enforcement on naxolone developed by the Department of Justice’s Bureau of Justice Assistance. 

Accession number
25561
Type new
Brief
Organization

United States Interagency Council on Homelessness

Year published new
2017

Socioeconomic Factors Associated With Cessation of Injection Drug Use Among Street-Involved Youth

Socioeconomic Factors Associated With Cessation of Injection Drug Use Among Street-Involved Youth
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This journal article describes a study that sought to identify socioeconomic factors associated with cessation of injection drug use among street-involved use in Vancouver, Canada. The researchers used data collected from September 2005 to May 2015 as part of a prospective study known as the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS). Among the 383 participants, nearly 45 percent of the youth reported quitting injection use during the reporting period. The findings suggest that socioeconomic factors, particularly engagement in prohibited street-based and illegal income-generating activities, may pose barriers to ceasing injection drug use among this population. The researchers conclude that improving access to stable and secure income, as well as employment opportunities, may help youth transition from injection drug use.

Accession number
25592
Authors
Chang, D.C., Hadland, S.E., Nosova, E., Wood, E., Kerr, T., DeBeck, K.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

Substance Abuse Treatment Prevention and Policy

Volume new
12
Year published new
2017
Availability

Six-Year Mortality in a Street-Recruited Cohort of Homeless Youth in San Francisco, California

Six-Year Mortality in a Street-Recruited Cohort of Homeless Youth in San Francisco, California
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

Yes

Abstract

This journal article describes a longitudinal study of street youth ages 15 to 24 in San Francisco, California, from 2004 to 2011. From the original cohort of 218 participants, 11 youth died during the six-year study, which is nearly a 10 percent mortality rate. Most deaths were due to suicide and/or alcohol and drug abuse. This mortality rate is more than ten times that of the mortality rate of the general youth population in California. The researchers conclude that additional services and programs are needed to provide housing and substance abuse intervention to prevent premature deaths among this vulnerable population.

Accession number
25591
Authors
Auerswald, C. L., Lin, J.S., Parriott, A.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

PeerJ

Year published new
2016
Availability

A PDF of this article is available on the National Center for Biotechnology Information website at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4841235/pdf/peerj-04-1909…

SAMSHA Opioid Overdose Prevention Toolkit

SAMSHA Opioid Overdose Prevention Toolkit
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMSHA) within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services developed this toolkit for health care providers, local communities, and patients and their families. The toolkit is a compilation of resources about both prescription and street opioids, opioid use disorder, and opioid overdose risk factors. It discusses five strategies to help prevent opioid overdose deaths, five essential steps for emergency medical personnel and healthcare professionals who respond to opioid overdoses, information for prescribers, safety advice for patients and family members, and information about recovering from an opioid overdose. A list of resources is provided for communities and organizations that are developing practices and policies to prevent opioid-related overdoses and deaths. The toolkit is also available in Spanish.

Accession number
25563
Type new
Guide/Toolkit
Organization

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

Year published new
2018
Availability

Psychological Interventions for Runaway and Homeless Youth

Psychological Interventions for Runaway and Homeless Youth
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This journal article presents a literature review that evaluated the effectiveness of psychological interventions for runaway and homeless youth in terms of mental health outcomes. The author identified five types of psychological interventions in 11 studies: art therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)-based interventions, family therapy, motivational interviewing, and strengths-based interventions. The findings show that family therapies are likely helpful for cases involving substance abuse and CBT-based interventions may work best for youth suffering from depression. However, the review did not find support for the effectiveness of any of the psychological interventions on mental health outcomes. In addition to recommending further research, the author encourages mental health nurses to assess the mental health status of runaway and homeless youth and provide timely and effective interventions. (author abstract modified)

Accession number
25740
Authors
Noh, D.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

Journal of Nursing Scholarship

Series
Clinical Scholarship
Volume new
50
Year published new
2018
Availability

Available with a subscription or article purchase at: https://sigmapubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jnu.12402

Predictors of Retention in an Alcohol and Risky Sex Prevention Program for Homeless Young Adults

Predictors of Retention in an Alcohol and Risky Sex Prevention Program for Homeless Young Adults
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This journal article looks at what factors predict retention rates of young adults who are homeless in a program to reduce alcohol and other drug (AOD) and risky sexual behaviors. As part of a larger intervention program study, the authors identified a sample of 100 participants between the ages of 18 and 25. Nearly half of the participants completed the four-session program. Findings indicate that the factors of sleeping outdoors and receiving the program in the urban setting predicted the participants attending fewer sessions. The authors suggest that these findings can help outreach staff and researchers better prepare methods to engage higher risk homeless youth and retain them in services.

Accession number
25851
Authors
Pedersen, E.R., Ewing, B.A,, DAmico, E.J., Miles, J.N.V., Hass, A.C., Tucker, J.S.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

Prevention Science

Volume new
19
Year published new
2020
Availability

Available with journal subscription or article purchase at: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11121-018-0866-9