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National Clearinghouse on Homeless Youth and Families

Drug Treatment

The Relative Influence of Injunctive and Descriptive Social Norms on Methamphetamine, Heroin, and Injection Drug Use Among Homeless Youth: The Impact of Different Referent Groups

The Relative Influence of Injunctive and Descriptive Social Norms on Methamphetamine, Heroin, and Injection Drug Use Among Homeless Youth: The Impact of Different Referent Groups
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This journal article describes a study that applied social network theory to understand how different types of social network norms, along with individual demographic and socioeconomic variables, are associated with recent use of methamphetamine, heroin, and intravenous drugs among homeless youth. The study assessed the relative influence of both injunctive and descriptive norms in the context of different referent groups (i.e., family, street peers, home-based peers, and staff members) on methamphetamine, heroin, and injection drug use behaviors of homeless youth in the past 30 days. The researchers collected cross-sectional data from a sample of 911 homeless youth, ages 14 to 25, at three drop-in centers in Los Angeles. The study consisted of two parts: a social network interview and a computerized self-administered survey. Findings indicate the need to carefully consider the diversity of homeless youths’ networks in designing substance use interventions. Furthermore, the researchers contend that the injunctive norms (i.e., objections to drug use) are associated with reduced drug use and should be considered when developing substance use interventions. Most interventions use social or descriptive norms that focus on changing the perceptions of the prevalence of drug use behavior or altering the drug user’s existing social network.

Accession number
25565
Authors
Barman-Adhikari, A., Craddock, J., Bowen, E., Das, R., Rice, E.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

Journal of Drug Issues

Volume new
48
Year published new
2018
Availability

Available for download via purchase or subscription at http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0022042617726080

Substance Use, the Opioid Epidemic, and Child Welfare Caseloads: Methodological Details From a Mixed Methods Study

Substance Use, the Opioid Epidemic, and Child Welfare Caseloads: Methodological Details From a Mixed Methods Study
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This report presents key findings from a mixed methods study examining how substance use affects child welfare systems across the country. The study combined statistical modeling and qualitative data collection which documented the perspectives and experiences of child welfare administrators and practitioners, substance use treatment administrators and practitioners, judges and other legal professionals, law enforcement officials, and other service providers. Results indicate that nationally, rates of drug overdose deaths and drug-related hospitalizations have a statistical relationship with child welfare caseloads (i.e., rates of child protective services reports, substantiated reports, and foster care placements). Generally, counties with higher overdose death and drug hospitalization rates have higher caseload rates. In addition, these substance use indicators correlate with rates of more complex and severe child welfare cases. Several major challenges affect how child welfare agencies and families interact with substance use treatment options, including medication-assisted treatment for opioid use disorder. Family-friendly treatment options are limited, and caseworkers, courts, and other providers often misunderstand how treatment works and lack guidelines on how to incorporate it into child welfare practice. Child welfare agencies and their community partners are struggling to meet families needs. Haphazard substance use assessment practices, barriers to collaboration with substance use treatment providers and other stakeholders, and shortages of foster homes and trained staff undermine the effectiveness of agencies responses to families. The report includes discussion guides for child welfare administrators and practitioners, substance use treatment administrators and practitioners, and other administrators and practitioners. (Author Abstract Modified)

Accession number
25560
Authors
Waters, A., Baldwin, M., Crouse, G., Ghertner, R., Radel, L.
Type new
Paper/Research Report
Organization

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation

Series
ASPE Research Brief
Year published new
2018
Availability

Full report available free of charge from HHS Office of the Assitant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation at: https://aspe.hhs.gov/system/files/pdf/259241/MethodologicalDetailsMixed…

Strategies to Address the Intersection of the Opioid Crisis and Homelessness

Strategies to Address the Intersection of the Opioid Crisis and Homelessness
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This brief identifies five strategies that communities, providers, and policy makers can use to address the intersection of homelessness and the opioid crisis and highlights resources developed by federal and national partners to support such efforts. It includes information about the first-ever report released by the Office of the Surgeon General on this issue called Facing Addiction in America: The Surgeon General’s Report on Alcohol, Drugs, and Health. The brief also includes links to webinars from the National Health Care for the Homeless Council on this topic and a toolkit for law enforcement on naxolone developed by the Department of Justice’s Bureau of Justice Assistance. 

Accession number
25561
Type new
Brief
Organization

United States Interagency Council on Homelessness

Year published new
2017

SAMSHA Opioid Overdose Prevention Toolkit

SAMSHA Opioid Overdose Prevention Toolkit
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMSHA) within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services developed this toolkit for health care providers, local communities, and patients and their families. The toolkit is a compilation of resources about both prescription and street opioids, opioid use disorder, and opioid overdose risk factors. It discusses five strategies to help prevent opioid overdose deaths, five essential steps for emergency medical personnel and healthcare professionals who respond to opioid overdoses, information for prescribers, safety advice for patients and family members, and information about recovering from an opioid overdose. A list of resources is provided for communities and organizations that are developing practices and policies to prevent opioid-related overdoses and deaths. The toolkit is also available in Spanish.

Accession number
25563
Type new
Guide/Toolkit
Organization

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

Year published new
2018
Availability

Opioids and Adolescent Health: Tip Sheet

Opioids and Adolescent Health: Tip Sheet
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This tip sheet provides an overview of the opioid crisis, how it affects youth, and what grantees and other youth-serving organizations can do about adolescent use. It describes how prescription opioids such as oxycodone, fentanyl, and hydrocodone work to relieve pain but can also be misused, possibly leading to addiction and opening the door to use of injection drugs such as heroin. It also covers factors that contribute to opioid misuse and overdose, such as: 1) the consistent growth in the number of opioid prescriptions in the U.S. from 76 million in 1991 to 207 million in 2013; 2) adolescents perception that prescription drug use is safer than illicit drugs; 3) social and psychological factors including curiosity, peer pressure, self-medication, and alienation; 4) ease of obtaining opioids; and 5) lack of prevention and treatment services for opioid misuse and overdose, particularly for adolescents. Also included are steps health professionals (including adolescent sexual and reproductive health professionals) can take to help reduce the toll of opioid misuse among adolescents, as well as several sources of additional information.

Accession number
25529
Authors
Family and Youth Services Bureau, Adolescent Pregnancy Pregnancy Program
Type new
Brochure/Pamphlet
Year published new
2018
Availability

Available for download free of charge from The Exchange at: https://teenpregnancy.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/resource-files/Op…

Medication-Assisted Treatment for Opioid Use Disorder in the Child Welfare Context: Challenges and Opportunities

Medication-Assisted Treatment for Opioid Use Disorder in the Child Welfare Context: Challenges and Opportunities
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This brief from the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE) uses results from a mixed methods study to determine how the current opioid epidemic, particularly parental opioid misuse, affects child welfare systems across the country. The study found four main challenges with the use of medication-assisted treatment (MAT) for parents involved with the child welfare system: 1) limited availability of appropriate treatment, 2) misunderstanding of MAT, 3) limited interactions between child welfare agencies and MAT providers, and 4) need for alignment between systems and stakeholders. The brief presents recommendations from ASPE on how to address and overcome these challenges.

Accession number
25667
Authors
Radel, L., Baldwin, M., Crouse, G., Ghertner, R., Waters, A.
Type new
Brief
Organization

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation

Series
ASPE Research Brief
Year published new
2018
Availability

Available free of charge on the HHS Office of the Assitant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation website at: https://aspe.hhs.gov/system/files/pdf/260121/MATChildWelfare.pdf