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National Clearinghouse on Homeless Youth and Families

Adolescents

Understanding the Differences in How Adolescents Leave Foster Care

Understanding the Differences in How Adolescents Leave Foster Care
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This policy brief from Chapin Hall explores how young people leave foster care among those who first enter care between ages 13 and 17. The researchers used data from a longitudinal foster care archive of approximately 3 million children nationwide. They analyzed reasons for leaving care by age at first admission and by placement history. They found that age at entry and placement history are both linked to youth outcomes. For example, teenagers who first enter care at age 15 have the highest chance of running away and are less likely to reach permanency than those who entered care earlier in their adolescence, in part because they are more likely to reach the age of majority while in care. Similarly, the types and configuration of placements and the number of placement changes affect the chances of youth reaching permanency or running away while in foster care.

Accession number
25762
Authors
Wulczyn, F., Huhr, S., Schmits, F., Wilkins, A.
Type new
Brief
Organization

Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago

Series
The Center for State Child Welfare Data
Year published new
2017
Availability

Available for free download on the Chapin Hall website at: https://www.chapinhall.org/wp-content/uploads/Understanding-the-Differe…

Solutions for Youth: An Evaluation of the Latin American Youth Centers Promotor Pathway Program

Solutions for Youth: An Evaluation of the Latin American Youth Centers Promotor Pathway Program
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This report describes an evaluation of an intensive client management program, called Promotor Pathway, that aims to help high-risk and disconnected youth overcome significant life obstacles such as lack of education, homelessness, trauma, substance abuse, and court involvement. The Washington, DC-based Latin American Youth Center launched this program is 2008. At the core of the program is the premise that long-term, positive relationships with caring adults, or promotors, is the most important factor in helping youth reach their goals. The team of Urban Institute evaluators conducted a randomized controlled trial to assess whether the Promotor Pathway program improved the outcomes of youth in educational attainment, employment, reduced births, residential stability, and reduced risk-taking behaviors. They found that youth who had a promotor were more likely than the control group to use services by the end of the 18-month trial period. The youth with promotors were up to 30 percent more likely to receive services for mental health counseling, substance use, public assistance, and legal problems.

Accession number
25597
Authors
Theodos, B., Pergamit, M.R., Derian, A., Edelstein, S., Stolte, A.
Type new
Paper/Research Report
Organization

Urban Institute

Year published new
2016
Availability

Available free of charge on the Urban Institutes website at: https://www.urban.org/research/publication/solutions-youth-evaluation-l…

Predictors of Running Away from Out-of-Home Care: Does County Context Matter?

Predictors of Running Away from Out-of-Home Care: Does County Context Matter?
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This journal article presents a study that used child-level placement data from the Multistate Foster Care Data Archive (n=53,610) to examine the incidence of running away during the first out-of-home care placement among adolescents. The authors found that 17 percent who entered out-of-home care for the first time ran away at least once during their first spell. Consistent with prior research, this study shows the rate at which youth run away once in foster care varies by gender, race/ethnicity, age, and placement type. The findings suggest that county context (i.e., population density and socioeconomic disadvantage) matters, although the authors recommend additional research to better understand these relationships. In addition, they found evidence that using a screening or risk assessment process for youth entering out-of-home care may reduce the incidence of running away.

Accession number
25672
Authors
Dworsky, A., Wulczyn, F., Huang, L.
Type new
Journal Article
Organization

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Policy Development and Research

Journal Name

Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research

Volume new
20
Year published new
2018
Availability

Entire periodical available on the HUD Office of Policy Development and Research website at: https://www.huduser.gov/portal/periodicals/cityscpe/vol20num3/Cityscape…

Parenting Under Pressure: Experiences of Parenting While Aging Out of Foster Care

Parenting Under Pressure: Experiences of Parenting While Aging Out of Foster Care
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This journal article describes a study that examined the parenting experiences of 33 youth aging out of foster care. The sample includes 21 mothers and 12 fathers ages 17 to 23 who have between one and four children. The researchers recruited participants from agencies serving youth aging out of foster care and through local contacts. They purposefully selected the sample to reflect the heterogeneity of the mid-Atlantic urban county’s child welfare system population. Findings show the participants balanced the joys of parenting with the many pressures and challenges they faced in part due to limited resources and support. These young parents were motivated to improve the lives of their children and worried about their children becoming involved with the child welfare system. The researchers discuss implications for practice, policy, and future research about youth aging out. (author abstract modified)

Accession number
25596
Authors
Schelbe, L., Geiger, J.M.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal

Volume new
34
Year published new
2017

Opioids and Adolescent Health: Tip Sheet

Opioids and Adolescent Health: Tip Sheet
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This tip sheet provides an overview of the opioid crisis, how it affects youth, and what grantees and other youth-serving organizations can do about adolescent use. It describes how prescription opioids such as oxycodone, fentanyl, and hydrocodone work to relieve pain but can also be misused, possibly leading to addiction and opening the door to use of injection drugs such as heroin. It also covers factors that contribute to opioid misuse and overdose, such as: 1) the consistent growth in the number of opioid prescriptions in the U.S. from 76 million in 1991 to 207 million in 2013; 2) adolescents perception that prescription drug use is safer than illicit drugs; 3) social and psychological factors including curiosity, peer pressure, self-medication, and alienation; 4) ease of obtaining opioids; and 5) lack of prevention and treatment services for opioid misuse and overdose, particularly for adolescents. Also included are steps health professionals (including adolescent sexual and reproductive health professionals) can take to help reduce the toll of opioid misuse among adolescents, as well as several sources of additional information.

Accession number
25529
Authors
Family and Youth Services Bureau, Adolescent Pregnancy Pregnancy Program
Type new
Brochure/Pamphlet
Year published new
2018
Availability

Available for download free of charge from The Exchange at: https://teenpregnancy.acf.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/resource-files/Op…

More than a Million Reasons for Hope: Youth Disconnection in America Today

More than a Million Reasons for Hope: Youth Disconnection in America Today
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This report is the fifth in the Disconnection Youth series from Measure of America, a nonpartisan project of the Social Science Research Council, which began calculating the youth disconnection rate and analyzing its causes and implications for human development in 2012. The project defines disconnected youth, also known as opportunity youth, as teenagers and young adults between the ages of 16 and 24 who are neither in school nor working. The report includes youth disconnection data for the United States by state, metro area, county, and community type, as well as by gender, race, and ethnicity.  The report concludes with examples of effective approaches to reducing youth disconnection that account for the many challenges that at-risk youth face.

Accession number
25633
Authors
Burd-Sharps, S., Lewis, K.
Type new
Paper/Research Report
Organization

Social Science Research Council

Series
Measure of Americas Youth Disconnection Series
Year published new
2018
Availability

Mobilizing Youth: Engaging Young People in Making Community Change

Mobilizing Youth: Engaging Young People in Making Community Change
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This brief from the Urban Institute discusses how the National Neighborhood Indicators Partnership (NNIP) is reaching out to young people through local NNIP community work. In collaboration with schools and youth programs, NNIP is training students to use data and advocacy to address inequities in health, housing, and employment. NNIP is also promoting youth voices through the arts. (author abstract modified)

Accession number
25820
Authors
Anoll, C.H.
Type new
Brief
Organization

Urban Institute

Year published new
2019
Availability

Available for free download on the Urban Institutes website at: https://www.urban.org/research/publication/mobilizing-youth-engaging-yo…

Interventions That Foster Healing Among Sexually Exploited Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

Interventions That Foster Healing Among Sexually Exploited Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This journal article describes a systematic review of the literature on the effectiveness of interventions for sexually exploited children and adolescents in fostering healing with this population. The researchers conducted a systematic search that generated 4,358 international publications of which 21 met their inclusion criteria. Based on each intervention’s objectives and delivery method, the researchers organized the programs into five categories: 1) focused health and/or social services, 2) intensive case management models, 3) psychoeducational therapy groups, 4) residential programs, and 5) other. Their review found that most programs were gender-specific, targeting girls and young women with only one designed for boys and young men. The reviewed studies reported on a range of outcomes including psychosocial outcomes, risky behaviors, trauma responses, mental health, protective factors, and public health outcomes. Despite differences in delivery, most of the interventions did, to some degree, appear to foster healing among sexually exploited children and adolescents. The researchers maintain that the findings from this review have implications for researchers, policy and program developers, and frontline practitioners who can partner together to create evidence-informed, purpose-built, and thoughtfully delivered interventions. (author abstract modified)

Accession number
25556
Authors
Moynihan, M., Pitcher, C., Saewyc, E.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

Journal of Child Sexual Abuse

Volume new
27
Year published new
2018
Availability

Internet and Social Media Access Among Youth Experiencing Homelessness: Mixed-Methods Study

Internet and Social Media Access Among Youth Experiencing Homelessness: Mixed-Methods Study
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This journal article details a study that looked at social media and internet use among homeless youth for general and health-related purposes and whether their use changes with their housing status. The study also measured their interest in a website dedicated to youth experiencing homelessness. The researchers recruited a sample of youth ages 18 to 21 from a youth-specific homeless shelter. All participants completed a 47-item survey, with 10 individuals completing a semi-structured interview. The study found that participants were able to regularly access the internet (56 percent daily and 86 percent weekly), mostly by using smartphones (66 percent). While experiencing homelessness, participants indicated their behaviors were more goal-oriented, such as searching for health-related information, and less focused on leisure or entertainment activities. They demonstrated an interest in a website for youth dealing with homelessness. The researchers conclude that mobile-optimized websites may be an effective method for reaching this population given the prevalence of smartphones in accessing the internet. (author abstract modified)

Accession number
25607
Authors
Houdek VonHoltz, L.A., Frasso, R., Golinkoff, J.M., Lozano, A.J., Hanlon, A., Dowshen, N.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

Journal of Medical Internet Research

Volume new
20
Year published new
2018
Availability

Available online at: http://www.jmir.org/2018/5/e184/

Family Functioning and Predictors of Runaway Behavior Among At-Risk Youth

Family Functioning and Predictors of Runaway Behavior Among At-Risk Youth
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This journal article describes a study that examined the predictors of runaway behavior among at-risk youth participating in a parent-youth mediation program. The researchers used longitudinal data from 111 at-risk families to identify proximal predictors of runaway behavior over a 12-week period (10 percent of youth in the study ran away during this time). They found that poorer youth- and parent-rated family functioning, past runaway behavior, and other problems (e.g. substance abuse, delinquency) predicted running away. However, poorer perceived academic functioning was not a predictor of running away. The results show a relationship between youth-rated family functioning and runaway behavior. However, this effect became insignificant after accounting for past runaway behavior and other problem behaviors, both of which remained significant predictors. These findings suggest that youth who run away may be engaged in a more pervasive pattern of problematic behavior and that screening and prevention programs need to address the cycle of adolescent defiant behavior associated with running away. The authors discuss recommendations for clinical practice with this at-risk population.

Accession number
25531
Authors
Holliday, S.B., Edelen, M.O., Tucker, J.S.
Type new
Journal Article
Organization

Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, CA

Journal Name

Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal

Volume new
34
Year published new
2017
Availability

Available by subscription or article purchase at https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10560-016-0459-z