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substance abuse

The Relative Influence of Injunctive and Descriptive Social Norms on Methamphetamine, Heroin, and Injection Drug Use Among Homeless Youth: The Impact of Different Referent Groups

The Relative Influence of Injunctive and Descriptive Social Norms on Methamphetamine, Heroin, and Injection Drug Use Among Homeless Youth: The Impact of Different Referent Groups
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This journal article describes a study that applied social network theory to understand how different types of social network norms, along with individual demographic and socioeconomic variables, are associated with recent use of methamphetamine, heroin, and intravenous drugs among homeless youth. The study assessed the relative influence of both injunctive and descriptive norms in the context of different referent groups (i.e., family, street peers, home-based peers, and staff members) on methamphetamine, heroin, and injection drug use behaviors of homeless youth in the past 30 days. The researchers collected cross-sectional data from a sample of 911 homeless youth, ages 14 to 25, at three drop-in centers in Los Angeles. The study consisted of two parts: a social network interview and a computerized self-administered survey. Findings indicate the need to carefully consider the diversity of homeless youths’ networks in designing substance use interventions. Furthermore, the researchers contend that the injunctive norms (i.e., objections to drug use) are associated with reduced drug use and should be considered when developing substance use interventions. Most interventions use social or descriptive norms that focus on changing the perceptions of the prevalence of drug use behavior or altering the drug user’s existing social network.

Accession number
25565
Authors
Barman-Adhikari, A., Craddock, J., Bowen, E., Das, R., Rice, E.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

Journal of Drug Issues

Volume new
48
Year published new
2018
Availability

Available for download via purchase or subscription at http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0022042617726080

Substance Use, the Opioid Epidemic, and Child Welfare Caseloads: Methodological Details From a Mixed Methods Study

Substance Use, the Opioid Epidemic, and Child Welfare Caseloads: Methodological Details From a Mixed Methods Study
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This report presents key findings from a mixed methods study examining how substance use affects child welfare systems across the country. The study combined statistical modeling and qualitative data collection which documented the perspectives and experiences of child welfare administrators and practitioners, substance use treatment administrators and practitioners, judges and other legal professionals, law enforcement officials, and other service providers. Results indicate that nationally, rates of drug overdose deaths and drug-related hospitalizations have a statistical relationship with child welfare caseloads (i.e., rates of child protective services reports, substantiated reports, and foster care placements). Generally, counties with higher overdose death and drug hospitalization rates have higher caseload rates. In addition, these substance use indicators correlate with rates of more complex and severe child welfare cases. Several major challenges affect how child welfare agencies and families interact with substance use treatment options, including medication-assisted treatment for opioid use disorder. Family-friendly treatment options are limited, and caseworkers, courts, and other providers often misunderstand how treatment works and lack guidelines on how to incorporate it into child welfare practice. Child welfare agencies and their community partners are struggling to meet families needs. Haphazard substance use assessment practices, barriers to collaboration with substance use treatment providers and other stakeholders, and shortages of foster homes and trained staff undermine the effectiveness of agencies responses to families. The report includes discussion guides for child welfare administrators and practitioners, substance use treatment administrators and practitioners, and other administrators and practitioners. (Author Abstract Modified)

Accession number
25560
Authors
Waters, A., Baldwin, M., Crouse, G., Ghertner, R., Radel, L.
Type new
Paper/Research Report
Organization

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation

Series
ASPE Research Brief
Year published new
2018
Availability

Full report available free of charge from HHS Office of the Assitant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation at: https://aspe.hhs.gov/system/files/pdf/259241/MethodologicalDetailsMixed…

Substance Use and Mental Health Interventions for Youth Who Are Homeless: The Community Reinforcement Approach and Motivational Enhancement Therapy

Substance Use and Mental Health Interventions for Youth Who Are Homeless: The Community Reinforcement Approach and Motivational Enhancement Therapy
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This book chapter provides information on two substance use and mental health interventions for homeless youth--the community reinforcement approach (CRA) and motivational enhancement therapy (MET). An estimated 48 percent to 98 percent of youth who are homeless meet criteria for at least one mental health diagnosis, including depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder, psychosis, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Between 69 percent and 86 percent meet criteria for a substance use disorder. Youth who are homeless have elevated rates of co-occurring substance use and mental health disorders when compared with their housed peers. Left untreated, substance use and mental health problems create additional barriers to exiting homelessness. Intervention efforts to improve the lives of these youth may have limited impact if underlying substance use and mental health problems are not treated. Research has shown that using CRA and MET has been effective among homeless youth. Youth who participated in CRA reported increases in social stability and decreases in drug use and depression compared with usual treatment. MET has been associated with similar positive outcomes. The book chapter describes the theoretical basis for both interventions, as well as program components and implementation considerations.   

Accession number
25428
Authors
Brakenhoff, B., Slesnick, N.
Type new
Book Chapter
Organization

Toronto, Canada: Canadian Observatory on Homelessness Press

Year published new
2018
Availability

Available for download free of charge from the Homeless Hub, a service of the Canadian Observatory on Homelessness at http://homelesshub.ca/sites/default/files/COH-MentalHealthBook.pdf.

Strategies to Address the Intersection of the Opioid Crisis and Homelessness

Strategies to Address the Intersection of the Opioid Crisis and Homelessness
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This brief identifies five strategies that communities, providers, and policy makers can use to address the intersection of homelessness and the opioid crisis and highlights resources developed by federal and national partners to support such efforts. It includes information about the first-ever report released by the Office of the Surgeon General on this issue called Facing Addiction in America: The Surgeon General’s Report on Alcohol, Drugs, and Health. The brief also includes links to webinars from the National Health Care for the Homeless Council on this topic and a toolkit for law enforcement on naxolone developed by the Department of Justice’s Bureau of Justice Assistance. 

Accession number
25561
Type new
Brief
Organization

United States Interagency Council on Homelessness

Year published new
2017

Socioeconomic Factors Associated With Cessation of Injection Drug Use Among Street-Involved Youth

Socioeconomic Factors Associated With Cessation of Injection Drug Use Among Street-Involved Youth
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This journal article describes a study that sought to identify socioeconomic factors associated with cessation of injection drug use among street-involved use in Vancouver, Canada. The researchers used data collected from September 2005 to May 2015 as part of a prospective study known as the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS). Among the 383 participants, nearly 45 percent of the youth reported quitting injection use during the reporting period. The findings suggest that socioeconomic factors, particularly engagement in prohibited street-based and illegal income-generating activities, may pose barriers to ceasing injection drug use among this population. The researchers conclude that improving access to stable and secure income, as well as employment opportunities, may help youth transition from injection drug use.

Accession number
25592
Authors
Chang, D.C., Hadland, S.E., Nosova, E., Wood, E., Kerr, T., DeBeck, K.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

Substance Abuse Treatment Prevention and Policy

Volume new
12
Year published new
2017
Availability

Six-Year Mortality in a Street-Recruited Cohort of Homeless Youth in San Francisco, California

Six-Year Mortality in a Street-Recruited Cohort of Homeless Youth in San Francisco, California
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

Yes

Abstract

This journal article describes a longitudinal study of street youth ages 15 to 24 in San Francisco, California, from 2004 to 2011. From the original cohort of 218 participants, 11 youth died during the six-year study, which is nearly a 10 percent mortality rate. Most deaths were due to suicide and/or alcohol and drug abuse. This mortality rate is more than ten times that of the mortality rate of the general youth population in California. The researchers conclude that additional services and programs are needed to provide housing and substance abuse intervention to prevent premature deaths among this vulnerable population.

Accession number
25591
Authors
Auerswald, C. L., Lin, J.S., Parriott, A.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

PeerJ

Year published new
2016
Availability

A PDF of this article is available on the National Center for Biotechnology Information website at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4841235/pdf/peerj-04-1909…

SAMSHA Opioid Overdose Prevention Toolkit

SAMSHA Opioid Overdose Prevention Toolkit
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMSHA) within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services developed this toolkit for health care providers, local communities, and patients and their families. The toolkit is a compilation of resources about both prescription and street opioids, opioid use disorder, and opioid overdose risk factors. It discusses five strategies to help prevent opioid overdose deaths, five essential steps for emergency medical personnel and healthcare professionals who respond to opioid overdoses, information for prescribers, safety advice for patients and family members, and information about recovering from an opioid overdose. A list of resources is provided for communities and organizations that are developing practices and policies to prevent opioid-related overdoses and deaths. The toolkit is also available in Spanish.

Accession number
25563
Type new
Guide/Toolkit
Organization

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

Year published new
2018
Availability

Recruitment and Retention of Homeless Youth in a Substance Use and HIV-risk Reduction Program

Recruitment and Retention of Homeless Youth in a Substance Use and HIV-risk Reduction Program
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This journal article describes methods used to recruit and retain a sample of 200 homeless youth for a four-session substance use and sexual risk reduction program at two drop-in centers in Los Angeles. Using unconventional methods, the researchers retained 91 percent of the full sample at a three-month follow-up assessment with 79 percent of the participants attending multiple sessions. The authors found that using structured materials with a small, dedicated staff helped to reach a higher retention rate with this at-risk population. This article describes the challenges researchers encounter when conducting intervention studies with homeless youth due to substance abuse, mental health problems, wariness of authority figures, and frequent relocations. It is especially challenging to retain this population across multiple program sessions and to relocate them for subsequent follow-up assessments. These retention issues can jeopardize a study’s data and conclusions. 

Accession number
25468
Authors
Garvey, R., Pedersen, E.R., DAmico, E.J., Ewing, B.A., Tucker, J.S.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

Field Methods

Volume new
30
Year published new
2018
Availability

The full-text article is available for free download at: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1525822X17728346

Predictors of Outreach Meetings Among Substance Using Homeless Youth

Predictors of Outreach Meetings Among Substance Using Homeless Youth
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This journal article describes a study that examined predictors of meetings with outreach workers among 79 homeless youth, ages 14 to 24, who self-reported substance use and were not currently connected to any supportive services. The study found the following factors predicted higher meeting frequency with an outreach worker: 1) being an older homeless youth, 2) not using hard drugs within the past 30 days, 3) experiencing higher levels of depressive symptoms, and 4) reporting fewer drug-related problems. The authors discuss how understanding what predicts outreach engagement can improve service providers ability to connect marginalized youth to resources to reduce unhealthy and dangerous risk behaviors. (Author Abstract Modified)

Accession number
25469
Authors
Carmona, J., Slesnick, N., Guo, X., Murnan, A., Brakenhoff, B.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

Community Mental Health Journal

Volume new
53
Year published new
2017
Availability

The full-text article is available for download via purchase or subscription: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10597-015-9919-8

Predictors of Adolescents First Episode of Homelessness Following Substance Use Treatment

Predictors of Adolescents First Episode of Homelessness Following Substance Use Treatment
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This journal article describes a study that sought to identify predictors of a young person’s first episode of homelessness during the 12 months after substance use treatment entry. The researchers used data from a longitudinal study of adolescents (n=17,911; aged 12 to 17 years) receiving substance use treatment throughout the U.S. The participants completed surveys at intake and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month intervals after intake. After excluding adolescents who reported previous experiences of homelessness, 5% of the study participants reported their first episode of homelessness over the 12 months after treatment intake. The final models indicate that those who were older, male, reported more victimization experiences, mental health problems, family problems, deviant peer relationships, and substance use problems (more treatment episodes and illicit drug dependence) were more likely to report experiencing homelessness. The findings show that Hispanic/Latino adolescents were less likely to experience homelessness compared with white adolescents. The results point to the important risk and protective factors that can be assessed at treatment entry to identify adolescents at greater risk of experiencing their first episode of homelessness. (author abstract modified)

Accession number
25884
Authors
DiGuiseppi, G.T., Davis, J.P., Leightley, D., Rice, E.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

Journal of Adolescent Health

Volume new
66
Year published new
2020
Availability