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risk factors

What You Need to Know: Sex Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation: A Training Tool for Parents of Teens

What You Need to Know: Sex Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation: A Training Tool for Parents of Teens
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This training tool for parents of teens helps to increase awareness about sex trafficking and sexual exploitation. It describes how teens often become victims of sex trafficking and why some are more susceptible to exploitation. The authors describe how pimps, known as traffickers, lure in their victims through the three T’s of trafficking: target, trick, and traumatize. This guide tells parents how to protect their children from sex trafficking, how to keep them safe on social media, and what red flags to look for that may indicate possible trafficking. The authors provide guidance for parents who suspect their children have been victimized. The training tool includes resources on where to seek help or report suspected trafficking.

Accession number
25586
Authors
Roe-Sepowitz, D., Bayless, A.
Type new
Guide/Toolkit
Organization

ASU School of Social Work Office of Sex Trafficking Intervention Research

Year published new
2016

Using a Predictive Risk Model to Identify Youth at Risk for Homelessness

Using a Predictive Risk Model to Identify Youth at Risk for Homelessness
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

The Children’s Bureau, within the Administration for Children and Families (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services), funded a multi-phase grant program to build the evidence base on what works to prevent homelessness among youth and young adults who have been involved in the child welfare system. Known as Youth At-Risk of Homelessness (YARH), this program funded 18 organizations for the first phase for two years. During the planning phase, grantees conducted data analyses to help understand their local population and develop comprehensive service models to improve outcomes in housing, education and training, social well-being, and permanent connections. For the second phase, six of the 18 organizations received funding to refine and test their comprehensive service models with a three-year implementation grant. This issue brief describes the challenges, lessons learned, and next steps of one grantee—United Way of King County in Washington. (author abstract modified)

Accession number
25489
Authors
Noble, C.
Type new
Brief
Organization

Mathematica Policy Research

Series
Youth At-Risk of Homelessness (YARH) Lessons from the Field
Year published new
2017
Availability

Available for free download on the Mathematica Policy Research website at:https://www.mathematica-mpr.com/our-publications-and-findings/publicati…

The Prevalence of Safe, Stable, Nurturing Relationships Among Children and Adolescents

The Prevalence of Safe, Stable, Nurturing Relationships Among Children and Adolescents
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This article describes the study of safe, stable, nurturing relationships (SSNRs) among children and youth in the U.S. using a nationally representative sample of 4,503 children and youth ages 1 month to 17 years. The National Survey of Childrens Exposure to Violence II was designed to obtain up-to-date incidence and prevalence estimates of a wide range of childhood victimizations and information about parenting practices, social support, and stressful life events. To encourage healthy development in children and youth, a better understanding is needed of how exposure to violence and victimization is situated within broader risk contexts as well as those that may be protective or encourage resilience. The authors provide a comprehensive assessment of SSNR factors; examine interrelationships among different indicators of SSNRs; and investigate the consequences of SSNRs for child and adolescent mental health. Results of this study indicate that almost 25 percent of children and adolescents ages 5 to 15 lived in family environments with only moderate levels of safety, stability, and nurturance, while about 1 in 15 had consistently low levels across multiple domains. Lack of SSNRs appears to most heavily burden older adolescents and children living in nontraditional family structures. (Author Abstract-Modified) 

Accession number
25413
Authors
Turner, H.A., Merrick, M.T., Finkelhor, D., Hamby, S., Shattuck, A., Henly, M.
Type new
Journal Article
Organization

University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH

Journal Name

Juvenile Justice Bulletin

Year published new
2017
Availability

Available free of charge from the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention website at https://www.ojjdp.gov/pubs/249197.pdf

Suicide and Homelessness: Data Trends in Suicide and Mental Health Among Homeless Populations

Suicide and Homelessness: Data Trends in Suicide and Mental Health Among Homeless Populations
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This factsheet provides data on the prevalence of suicide in the United States and information about common risk factors for the general population and the increased risks among homeless populations. The National Health Care for the Homeless (HCH) Council developed this factsheet as part of a series related to emerging issues in the HCH field.  It includes data from a 2017 study that found school-age children and youth who are homeless are three times more likely to attempt suicide than their housed peers. The factsheet provides resources for additional information and support, including the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline. A list of references for the data sources is also provided. 

Accession number
25549
Authors
Poe, B.
Type new
Brief
Organization

National Health Care for the Homeless Council

Year published new
2018

Social and Emotional Learning and Traditionally Underserved Populations

Social and Emotional Learning and Traditionally Underserved Populations
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This brief from the American Youth Policy Forum focuses on social and emotional learning (SEL) programs for three traditionally underserved groups: students with disabilities, English language learners, and youth involved in the juvenile justice system.  The risk factors and consequences experienced by system-involved youth often create barriers to their social and emotional development. In addition to reviewing current research and practice related to SEL for these three student populations, the author explores possible applications of SEL programs to better prepare these students for success in school and life. (author abstract modified)

Accession number
25709
Authors
Beyer, L.N.
Type new
Brief
Organization

American Youth Policy Forum

Year published new
2017
Availability

Available for free download on the AYPF website at: https://www.aypf.org/resource/sel-special-populations/

Screening for Human Trafficking among Homeless Young Adults

Screening for Human Trafficking among Homeless Young Adults
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

The objective of this study was to develop a screening tool for sex trafficking, labor trafficking, or both among homeless young adults. It also looked at whether homeless youth who have experienced trafficking have different needs than those who have not. The researchers pretested a screening tool with 307 participants, ages 18 to 22, who were receiving services from Covenant House in New Jersey. From this testing, they validated Quick Youth Indicators for Trafficking (QYIT), a user-friendly screening tool that does not require trafficking expertise to administer in the field. During this process, the researchers found that labor trafficking is a significant form of trafficking among homeless youth. (author abstract modified)

Accession number
25754
Authors
Chisolm-Straker, M., Sze, J., Einbond, J., White, J., Stoklosa, H.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

Children and Youth Services Review

Volume new
98
Year published new
2019
Availability

Available for free download from journal homepage at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0190740918307540?via…

Risk and Resilience: Differences in Risk Factors and Health Outcomes Between Homeless and Non-Homeless Students in 2017 YRBS Data

Risk and Resilience: Differences in Risk Factors and Health Outcomes Between Homeless and Non-Homeless Students in 2017 YRBS Data
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This report from SchoolHouse Connection presents a study that used 2017 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data from 17 states. Starting in 2017, YRBS included two questions related to homelessness for the first time since its inception in 1990 by the CDC. The researchers compared seven self-reported risk factors and health outcomes of high school students experiencing homelessness with their housed peers. The findings indicate youth experiencing homelessness have poorer health outcomes and exhibit higher risk behaviors. For instance, homeless youth are more likely to experience dating violence, misuse prescription pain medication, and attempt suicide. This report also includes qualitative data from interviews with 49 young people who participated in the SchoolHouse Connection’s Youth Leadership and Scholarship Program and the National Network for Youth’s National Youth Advisory Council. The researchers outline policies and practices to help school systems improve their implementation of the protections and supports provided to homeless children and youth by federal law.

Accession number
25656
Authors
Brown, K., Duffield, B., Owens, C.R.
Type new
Paper/Research Report
Organization

Schoolhouse Connection

Year published new
2018
Availability

Available free of charge on the SchoolHouse Connection website at: https://www.schoolhouseconnection.org/risk-and-resilience-differences-i…

Pretesting a Human Trafficking Screening Tool in the Child Welfare and Runaway and Homeless Youth Systems

Pretesting a Human Trafficking Screening Tool in the Child Welfare and Runaway and Homeless Youth Systems
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

Despite the fact that youth involved in the child welfare (CW) and runaway and homeless youth (RHY) systems are particularly vulnerable to being trafficked, there is no consensus screening tool to identify trafficking experiences among such youth. In order to better serve youth trafficking victims, a Human Trafficking Screening Tool (HTST), along with a Short Form version (HTST-SF), was developed and pretested with 617 RHY- and CW-involved youth, ages 12 to 24, across 14 RHY and CW settings in New York, Texas, and Wisconsin in 2016. The survey captured their trafficking experiences as well as demographic characteristics and other life experiences related to trafficking (e.g., running away, drug abuse). Overall, the HTST and HTST-SF performed equally well at capturing trafficking experiences for most youth. Practitioners assessed the tool as easy to administer and the youths responses as truthful and indicating understanding of the questions. Responses to the HTST were correlated to known trafficking risk factors and outcomes, including running away from home, being kicked out of ones home, abusing prescription or over-the-counter drugs, trading sex for something of value on their own, being arrested, and seeking help. In addition, the HTST correctly predicted trafficking victimization. Additional testing of youth under age 18 and youth in CW settings, in addition to further validation work with a nationally representative sample of youth, is recommended. (Author Abstract Modified)  

Accession number
25402
Authors
Dank, M., Yahner, J., Yu, L., Vasquez-Noriega, C., Gelatt, J., Pergamit, M.
Type new
Paper/Research Report
Organization

John Jay College of Criminal Justice, New York, NY

Year published new
2017
Availability

Available free of charge at HHS Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation: https://aspe.hhs.gov/system/files/pdf/257786/Pretesting.pdf.

Predicting Homelessness Among Emerging Adults Aging Out of Foster Care

Predicting Homelessness Among Emerging Adults Aging Out of Foster Care
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This journal article describes a study that examines risk and protective factors associated with experiencing homelessness in the year after youth age out of foster care. Using a state?level integrated administrative database, the researchers identified 1,202 emerging adults in Washington State who exited foster care between July 2010 and June 2012. They found that parenting youth, youth who had recently experienced housing instability, or who were African American had approximately twice the odds of experiencing homelessness in the year after exiting foster care. In addition, youth who had experienced disrupted adoptions, multiple foster care placements (especially in congregate care settings), or juvenile justice system involvement were more likely to become homeless. In contrast, youth were less likely to experience homelessness if they had ever been placed with a relative while in foster care or had a high cumulative grade point average relative to their peers. (author abstract modified)

Accession number
25628
Authors
Shah, M.F., Liu, Q., Eddy, J.M., Barkan, S., Marshall, D., Mancuso, D., Lucenko, B., Huber, A.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

American Journal of Community Psychology

Volume new
60
Year published new
2017
Availability

Available for download via purchase or subscription at https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/ajcp.12098

Part IV: Vulnerability of Different Homeless Situations

Part IV: Vulnerability of Different Homeless Situations
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This research brief from SchoolHouse Connection looks at demographic and risk factor data of high school students experiencing homelessness compared with students not experiencing homelessness. It uses the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) results from 17 states during the 2016-2017 school year. The survey breaks down where students reported sleeping during the past 30 days. SchoolHouse Connections analyzed these data to determine the vulnerability of youth in different homeless living situations to health risk behaviors. Across the different categories, students were vulnerable to violence, suicide, substance abuse, hunger, bullying, and sleep deprivation. This brief provides action steps and additional resources for schools. (author abstract modified)

Accession number
25791
Type new
Brief
Organization

Schoolhouse Connection

Series
Student Homelessness: Lessons from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey
Year published new
2019
Availability

Available for free download on the SchoolHouse Connection website at: https://www.schoolhouseconnection.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/YRBS-l…