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National Clearinghouse on Homeless Youth and Families

Housing

Scaling Up Housing Services Within the Child Welfare System: Policy Insights From Simulation Modeling.

Scaling Up Housing Services Within the Child Welfare System: Policy Insights From Simulation Modeling.
Abstract

"Objectives:Housing insecurity and homelessness contribute to risk of maltreatment among one in five of the nearly 3.5 million children annually investigated for maltreatment in the United States. The Family Unification Program (FUP)—a federal initiative—connects inadequately housed families involved in child welfare with long-term rental subsidies to avoid foster placement. However, FUP remains understudied and underutilized with funding levels that serve only a fraction of eligible households. The present study uses system dynamics modeling to inform decision-making by testing policies for scaling FUP.
Method:Simulations model delivery of FUP within child welfare from a feedback perspective. Calibrated on national data, models replicate trends in child welfare involvement from 2013 through 2016, and analyses forecast rates through 2019. Experiments test policies that enhance FUP. Outcomes track system-wide rates of family separation and returns on investment of expanded housing interventions.
Results:Dramatic expansions of FUP benefit more families and improve marginal return on investment. Yet, scale-up fails to reduce system-wide rates of family separation or generates substantial cost-savings.
Conclusions:Simulations demonstrate structural challenges for scaling FUP. Constant demand for affordable housing constrains sustainable improvements in child protection. Child welfare responses to homelessness require innovations that reduce demand for housing services through prevention and earlier intervention."

Authors
Fowler, P.J., Marcal, K.E., Chung, S., Brown, D.S., Jonson-Reid, M.M & Hovmand, P.S.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

Child Maltreatment

Volume new
25
Issue
1
Year published new
2020

Improving Access to Housing and Supportive Services for Runaway and Homeless Youth: Reducing Vulnerability to Human Trafficking in New York City.

Improving Access to Housing and Supportive Services for Runaway and Homeless Youth: Reducing Vulnerability to Human Trafficking in New York City.
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

Recent estimates indicate that there are over 1 million runaway and homeless youth and young adults (RHY) in the United States (US). Exposure to trauma, violence, and substance abuse, coupled with a lack of community support services, puts homeless youth at high risk of being exploited and trafficked. Although access to safe housing and supportive services such as physical and mental healthcare is an effective response to youth’s vulnerability towards being trafficked, the number of youth experiencing homelessness exceeds the capacity of available housing resources in most US communities. We undertake a RHY-informed, systematic, and data-driven approach to project the collective capacity required by service providers to adequately meet the needs of RHY in New York City, including those most at risk of being trafficked. Our approach involves an integer linear programming model that extends the multiple multidimensional knap-sack problem and is informed by partnerships with key stakeholders. The mathematical model allows for time-dependent allocation and capacity expansion, while incorporating stochastic youth arrivals and length of stays, services provided in a periodic fashion, and service delivery time windows. Our RHY and service provider-centered approach is an important step toward meeting the actual, rather than presumed, survival needs of vulnerable youth.

Authors
Kaya, Y. B., Maass, K. L., Dimas, G. L., Konrad, R., Trapp, A. C., & Dank, M.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

arXiv

Source

Kaya 2022.pdf

Year published new
2022

Racial Inequity and Homelessness: Findings from the SPARC Study.

Racial Inequity and Homelessness: Findings from the SPARC Study.
Abstract

"This study examines racial inequities and homelessness in the United States through mixed methods research in eight communities. We compare the race and ethnicity of those experiencing homelessness to the general population and to people in poverty, and we also explore how race and ethnicity are associated with housing outcomes. Interviews with 195 individuals of color explore pathways into homelessness and drivers of outcomes. We find that Black/African Americans and Native Americans were the most overrepresented among those experiencing homelessness in each community, and interview data suggest that factors associated with homelessness for people of color include barriers to housing and economic mobility, racism and discrimination within homeless services, and involvement in multiple systems, including criminal justice. How race and ethnicity were associated with outcomes varied for youth, single adults, and families. We argue that researchers and policy-makers need to address homelessness with attention to racial justice.

Authors
Olivet, J., Wilkey, C., Richard, M., et al.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science

Volume new
693
Issue
1
Source

34_Olivet_2021.pdf

Year published new
2021

Commentary Health, Safety, and Well-Being of Adolescents and Young Adults in the United States: What Is at Stake Beyond 2021?

Commentary Health, Safety, and Well-Being of Adolescents and Young Adults in the United States: What Is at Stake Beyond 2021?
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

In this meta-synthesis of current findings on youth interventions, the authors explore common programmatic or contextual factors that researchers and/or practitioners identify as contributing to the successful implementation of an intervention for homeless and unstably housed youth; and (2) that youth and practitioners identify as hindering successful implementation of an intervention for these youth? Two primary themes regarding factors that support successful implementation and engagement were identified: (1) Organizational and system-wide policies can shape the quality and duration of interventions, and (2) Staff behaviors and training are paramount to the success of many interventions. Results further highlight organizational and system-wide policies and staffing behaviors and training needs. The authors conclude that their review supports services that emphasize empowerment and anti-paternalism, and increased attention to racial and LGBTQ equity in future exploration of implementation and engagement within programs designed for youth experiencing homelessness. (author abstract modified)

Authors
English, A., & Brindis, E.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

Journal of Adolescent Health

Volume new
70
Issue
175-185
Year published new
2022

“TO BECOME THE BEST VERSION OF MYSELF”: Youth-Supportive Transitional Housing Programs as An Essential Resource for Addressing Youth Homelessness. Federal Data Summary: School Years 2014-15 to 2016-17

“TO BECOME THE BEST VERSION OF MYSELF”: Youth-Supportive Transitional Housing Programs as An Essential Resource for Addressing Youth Homelessness. Federal Data Summary: School Years 2014-15 to 2016-17
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

Each year, millions of youth experience homelessness across the United States, and they need proven housing models and an array of services and supports to help them achieve stability and independence – all in an effort to ultimately prevent and end youth homelessness. Covenant House International, National Network for Youth, and SchoolHouse Connection published this paper to highlight an essential, but often under-resourced, housing model for young people: transitional housing. This paper shares research demonstrating the effectiveness of transitional housing programs and argues for greater investments and wider availability of this essential housing model. This includes offering transitional programs and other types of homelessness services to minors. The need for expanded programming is great among this population, as the vast majority of students experiencing homelessness are not in shelters or other housing programs.

Authors
National Center for Homeless Education (NCHE).
Type new
Report
Organization

National Center for Homeless Education (NCHE).

Year published new
2019

“I’m losing everything all over again”: Responses from youth experiencing homelessness during the COVID-19 pandemic.

“I’m losing everything all over again”: Responses from youth experiencing homelessness during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

Purpose: Already at high-risk for adverse consequences associated with daily living, youth experiencing homelessness face additional barriers to health and well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this study was to identify the self-reported experiences and healthcare needs of youth experiencing homelessness as services in the community began to shut down at the beginning of the pandemic. Method: From May through November 2020, qualitative data were obtained by telephone or Facebook messenger from 20 youth (M = 22.4, SD = 2.64 years) who had been enrolled in a longitudinal intervention study. Results: Content analysis of qualitative data yielded 5 categories and 1 overall theme. Categories were resource availability, financial instability, mental health, relationship conflict, and maladaptive coping. The overall theme was multiple losses. Youths lost jobs, means of financial support for self and family, access to social and healthcare services, meaningful and important relationships, and skills and controls over high-risk behaviors such as substance abuse. Conclusions: Having similar experiences such as social isolation as those of high school students during the pandemic, the youths in this sample experienced multiple and simultaneous losses, needing time to grieve, and leaving them once more at high-risk for adverse outcomes.

Authors
Rew, L., Yeargain, O., Peretz, C., & Croce, E.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

Archives of Psychiatric Nursing

Year published new
2021

Reimagining homelessness assistance for children and families

Reimagining homelessness assistance for children and families
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

The homelessness response system in the United States is dominated by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). HUD’s definition of homelessness, program models, metrics, data, approaches, and goals have overshadowed those of other federal agencies. This policy brief argues that children, youth, and families experiencing homelessness have been poorly served by HUD’s dominance, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. It proposes that other federal agencies, specifically the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Department of Education, are better suited to provide comprehensive homeless assistance for children, youth, and families. The author draws from research, policy analyses, and testimonies of parents, service providers, and educators to make the case for a reimagined homelessness response that is child-centered and oriented toward long-term goals of economic independence, health, and wellness.

Authors
Duffield, B.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

Journal of Children and Poverty

Volume new
26
Issue
2
Year published new
2020

Preventive health care utilization among youths who have run away, experienced homelessness, or been stably housed

Preventive health care utilization among youths who have run away, experienced homelessness, or been stably housed
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

Yes

Abstract

"Although it is well established that youths with unstable housing face increased health risks compared with peers with stable housing, there is considerable heterogeneity in youths’ experiences of housing instability, with implications for health, clinical practice, and policy. For instance, adolescents who are homeless with their families may have unique health needs compared with those who are unaccompanied, and youths who run away may be at particularly high risk for poor health outcomes. Given that annual preventive visits are recommended for all adolescents, they may represent an opportunity to explore housing status and address health needs of youth facing housing instability. To inform clinical practice and interventions, the authors sought to compare preventive health care utilization among subgroups of youth who have run away, experienced homelessness, or been stably housed.
"

Authors
Gewirtz O'Brien, J. R., Barnes, A. J., Scal, P. B., & McRee, A. L.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

JAMA Pediatrics

Volume new
174
Issue
9
Year published new
2020

Examining the link: Foster care runaway episodes and human trafficking

Examining the link: Foster care runaway episodes and human trafficking
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This brief summarizes and builds on a 2019 report to Congress, The Child Welfare System Response to Sex Trafficking of Children. This brief discusses the number of youth who run from foster care, factors that place youth at risk of running from care, and the evidence around running from care and sex trafficking victimization. Where applicable, the authors also review the evidence around running from care and labor trafficking. The authors conclude with a discussion of promising efforts to reduce runaway behavior. (Author modified)

Authors
Latzman, N. E., & Gibbs, D.
Type new
Report
Journal Name

OPRE Report No. 2020-143. Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Year published new
2020

Measuring Our Success: Campus Supports for College Students Experiencing Food & Housing Insecurity.

Measuring Our Success: Campus Supports for College Students Experiencing Food & Housing Insecurity.
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

In January 2019, the California Homeless Youth Project (CHYP), an initiative of the California Research Bureau, be¬gan a study to explore the supply of resources available to students experiencing housing insecurity and home¬lessness at California’s public colleges and universities. This study builds on a previous CHYP report by looking in-depth at the types of resources campuses offer that help students meet their basic needs. It also builds on a growing body of research on food and housing insecurity in higher education—and the actions that are being taken to address these challenges—on a system-wide, state, and national level. The findings in this report are based on information collected from campus websites, phone calls, and emails with higher education staff in order to determine which of California’s public colleges and universities offer resources that address basic needs insecurity. Specifically, we determined if campuses offer year-round student housing, emergency housing, emergency grants, short-term loans, food resources, and advisors and programs for foster youth and students experiencing homelessness. This study looked at 44 percent of the 114 California Community Colleges (CCCs) and all of the California State Universities (CSUs) and Universities of California (UCs).

Authors
California Homeless Youth Project
Type new
Paper/Research Report
Organization

California Homeless Youth Project

Year published new
2019