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National Clearinghouse on Homeless Youth and Families

Homeless Youth

Improving Access to Housing and Supportive Services for Runaway and Homeless Youth: Reducing Vulnerability to Human Trafficking in New York City.

Improving Access to Housing and Supportive Services for Runaway and Homeless Youth: Reducing Vulnerability to Human Trafficking in New York City.
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

Recent estimates indicate that there are over 1 million runaway and homeless youth and young adults (RHY) in the United States (US). Exposure to trauma, violence, and substance abuse, coupled with a lack of community support services, puts homeless youth at high risk of being exploited and trafficked. Although access to safe housing and supportive services such as physical and mental healthcare is an effective response to youth’s vulnerability towards being trafficked, the number of youth experiencing homelessness exceeds the capacity of available housing resources in most US communities. We undertake a RHY-informed, systematic, and data-driven approach to project the collective capacity required by service providers to adequately meet the needs of RHY in New York City, including those most at risk of being trafficked. Our approach involves an integer linear programming model that extends the multiple multidimensional knap-sack problem and is informed by partnerships with key stakeholders. The mathematical model allows for time-dependent allocation and capacity expansion, while incorporating stochastic youth arrivals and length of stays, services provided in a periodic fashion, and service delivery time windows. Our RHY and service provider-centered approach is an important step toward meeting the actual, rather than presumed, survival needs of vulnerable youth.

Authors
Kaya, Y. B., Maass, K. L., Dimas, G. L., Konrad, R., Trapp, A. C., & Dank, M.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

arXiv

Source

Kaya 2022.pdf

Year published new
2022

Towards A Theory of Why Kids Run Away: Evaluating Strain and Control Mechanisms to Account for First-time Running Behavior Among Males vs. Females.

Towards A Theory of Why Kids Run Away: Evaluating Strain and Control Mechanisms to Account for First-time Running Behavior Among Males vs. Females.
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

Between 5–9% of American adolescents experience 1+ episode of independent homelessness. Although multiple stressors have consistently been shown to precede runaway behavior, sampling homeless populations fails to capture variation between juveniles who run/do not run. This research uses Waves I and II of the Add Health public use data to examine conditions likely to result in a first-time run among males vs. females. Specifically, we argue that strains/negative emotion derived from Agnew’s general strain theory and social controls derived from Hirschi’s social bond theory will act as positive and negative motivations, respectively, to predict first-time runs. We find significant, main effects on running for multiple strain and control measures. However, results of our integrated models suggest that, while composite strain and depression increase the odds of running across gender, composite social control is associated with lower odds of running for females only. This finding underscores prior research suggesting that social bonds may have a stronger protective impact on females considering a first-time run.

Authors
Coward Bucher, C., Manasse, M. & Cesar J. Rebellon, C.J.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

Deviant Behavior

Source

Coward Bucher_2022.pdf

Year published new
2022

Heterogeneous trajectories of suicidal ideation among homeless youth: predictors and suicide-related outcomes.

Heterogeneous trajectories of suicidal ideation among homeless youth: predictors and suicide-related outcomes.
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

The current study examined heterogeneous trajectories of suicidal ideation among homeless youth experiencing suicidal ideation over 9 months in a randomized controlled intervention study. Suicidal homeless youth (N = 150) were randomly assigned to Cognitive Therapy for Suicide Prevention (CTSP) þ Treatment as Usual (TAU) or TAU alone. Youth reported their suicidal ideation four times during a 9-month period. We also assessed pretreatment mental health, demographic information and session attendance as predictors of the subgroups, as well as suicide-related factors as outcomes at the 9-month follow-up. Growth mixture models suggested three distinct trajectory groups among youth: Fast Declining (74.7%), Chronic (19.3%), and Steadily Declining (6.0%). Youth in the Chronic group used more substances at baseline than the Steadily Declining group, were more likely to be White, non-Hispanic than the Fast-Declining group, and attended more CTSP sessions than other groups. Contrastingly, youth in the Steadily Declining group all experienced childhood abuse. Finally, youth in the Chronic group showed significant higher risk for future suicide compared to those in the Fast-Declining group at 9 months. Findings support the heterogeneity of treatment responses in suicide intervention among homeless youth, with implications to improve treatment efforts in this very high-risk population.

Authors
Wu, Q., Zhang, J., Walsh, L., & Slesnick, N.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

Development and Psychopathology

Source

Wu_2022.pdf

Year published new
2022

The Complex Predictors of Youth Homelessness.

The Complex Predictors of Youth Homelessness.
Abstract

In a 2018 issue of this journal, Morton and colleagues published the first national prevalence and incidence study of homelessness among youth and young adults in the U.S. A new study by DiGuiseppi et al. published in this issue provides valuable new evidence to help facilitate risk identification and prevention of homelessness among adolescents engaged in substance use treatment.

Authors
Matthew H. Morton, M.H.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

Journal of Adolescent Health

Volume new
66
Issue
4
Year published new
2020

Investigating the impacts of COVID-19 among LGBTQ2S youth experiencing homelessness.

Investigating the impacts of COVID-19 among LGBTQ2S youth experiencing homelessness.
Abstract

"Background: LGBTQ2S youth are overrepresented among youth experiencing homelessness and experience significantly higher rates of mental health issues compared to heterosexual and cisgender youth. COVID-19 related challenges for LGBTQ2S youth experiencing homelessness remain unknown. To address this gap, this study aimed to understand the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on LGBTQ2S youth at risk of, and experiencing, homelessness in the Greater Toronto Area, Ontario, Canada and surrounding areas.
Methods: Utilizing a mixed-methods convergent parallel design, LGBTQ2S youth experiencing homelessness were recruited to participate in virtual surveys and in-depth one-on-one interviews. Surveys included standardized measures and were administered to measure mental health outcomes and collect information on demographic characteristics, and health service use. Survey data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and statistical tests for difference of proportions. Interviews were analyzed using an iterative thematic content approach.
Results: Sixty-one youth completed surveys and 20 youth participated in one-on-one interviews. Quantitative and qualitative data showed that youth have been significantly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic in various ways, including experiencing poor mental health, such as suicidality, depression, anxiety, and increased substance use, and lack of access to health and social support services.
Conclusion: Our study highlights the need for LGBTQ2S inclusive and affirming health care and support services for precariously housed adolescents to address the pre-existing social and health issues that have been exacerbated by the pandemic.

Keywords
Authors
Abramovich, A., Pang, N., Moss, A., Logie, C.H., Chaiton, M., Kidd, S.A., & Hamilton, H.A.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

PLOS ONE

Volume new
16
Issue
e0257693
Year published new
2021

Fostering Inequity: How COVID-19 Amplifies Dangers for LGBTQ+ Youth in Care.

Fostering Inequity: How COVID-19 Amplifies Dangers for LGBTQ+ Youth in Care.
Abstract

This report was developed with extensive input from LGBTQ+ young people currently or formerly in foster care, LGBTQ+ young people currently or formerly experiencing homelessness, and direct service workers. We identify how the pandemic is amplifying some of the risks for LGBTQ+ youth in child welfare systems and propose practices to mitigate them. Now, more than ever, LGBTQ+ young people must be protected.

Type new
Policy Report
Organization

Children's Rights Works

Year published new
2020

Homelessness, Mental Health and Suicidality Among LGBTQ Youth Accessing Crisis Services.

Homelessness, Mental Health and Suicidality Among LGBTQ Youth Accessing Crisis Services.
Abstract

LGBTQ youth experience increased risks of homelessness, mental health disorder symptoms, and suicidality. Utilizing data from LGBTQ youth contacting a suicide crisis services organization, this study examined: (a) rates of homelessness among crisis services users, (b) the relationship between disclosure of LGBTQ identity to parents and parental rejection and homelessness, and (c) the relationship between homelessness and mental health disorder outcomes and suicidality. A nationwide sample of LGBTQ youth was recruited for a confidential online survey from an LGBTQ-focused crisis services hotline. Overall, nearly one-third of youth contacting the crisis services hotline had experienced lifetime homelessness, and those who had disclosed their LGBTQ identity to parents or experienced parental rejection because of LGBTQ status experienced higher rates of homelessness. Youth with homelessness experiences reported more symptoms of several mental health disorders and higher rates of suicidality. Suggestions for service providers are discussed.

Authors
Rhoades, H., Rusow, J.A., Bond, D., Lanteigne, A., Fulginiti, A., & Goldbach, J.T.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

Child Psychiatry & Human Development

Volume new
49
Issue
4
Year published new
2018

Homeless youth shelters and services for transgender and gender non-conforming (TGNC) clients: Results from a nationwide survey.

Homeless youth shelters and services for transgender and gender non-conforming (TGNC) clients: Results from a nationwide survey.
Abstract

This study explored results from a nationwide survey conducted with homeless youth shelter directors. The research sought to further the understanding of how policy and societal changes about gender affirming access to services have affected service delivery and accommodations at homeless youth shelters for transgender and gender non-conforming (TGNC) youth. Results from (n = 117) youth shelters indicate the majority of those surveyed are current in implementing many of the Housing and Urban Development (HUD) gender affirming policies. Among others, recommendations include a need for shelters to incorporate TGNC safety accommodations, and to update dress code policies from a universal design perspective.

Authors
Bowers, P.H., Aguiniga, D.M., Reamer, D., & Reynolds, J.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services

Year published new
2022

Youth Mental Health & Homelessness: Looking Upstream for Solutions. Social Work Today, 22(2), 16.

Youth Mental Health & Homelessness: Looking Upstream for Solutions. Social Work Today, 22(2), 16.
Abstract

Youth homelessness may be less visible, but it occurs during an important developmental window, one in which precious energies should be committed to aspiration and growth rather than a struggle to meet basic needs for safety, food, clothing, and shelter. The authors describe missed opportunities, mental health threats, and the diverse and common characteristics of homelessness. Several US communities are currently using screening tools and programs which have had successful outcomes intervening with school-aged students in Australia. The authors explore these positive practices as well as preventive measures, and next steps for communities seeking to address youth homelessness.

Authors
Kull, M., Griffin, A.M., Alexcee, A., & Farrell, A.F.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

Social Work Today

Volume new
22
Issue
2

Tackling youth homelessness with peer navigators in Cleveland.

Tackling youth homelessness with peer navigators in Cleveland.
Abstract

Two years ago, A Place 4 Me set out to house 100 youth in 100 days as part of its ongoing efforts to improve out¬comes for transition-age youth in foster care. The initiative exceeded its goal and — in the process — showed how to strengthen support systems and services for young people in foster care. Kate Lodge is the executive director and vice president of strategic initiatives at A Place 4 Me, which is the Annie E. Casey Foundation’s Cleveland-based partner in its Jim Casey Youth Opportunities Initiative® Network. In this post, Lodge describes how Cleveland had adopted innovative practices, such as the hiring of peer navigators, to tackle youth homelessness today.

Type new
Blog
Organization

The Annie E. Casey Foundation

Year published new
2019