Skip to main content
National Clearinghouse on Homeless Youth and Families

Homeless Youth

Youth At-Risk of Homelessness: Design for an Impact Study of “Pathways to Success”: A Coach-Like Case Management Program for Youth and Young Adults in Foster Care”, OPRE Report #2021-152. Administration for Children and Families, OPRE, August 2021

Youth At-Risk of Homelessness: Design for an Impact Study of “Pathways to Success”: A Coach-Like Case Management Program for Youth and Young Adults in Foster Care”, OPRE Report #2021-152. Administration for Children and Families, OPRE, August 2021
Abstract

"The Administration for Children and Families’ (ACF) Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation (OPRE) contracted with Mathematica in the first two phases of YARH to provide evaluation technical assistance to grantees, support them in articulating and refining the design of their service models, assess the evaluability of each service model, and disseminate the knowledge developed. ACF is now in the third phase of YARH (or YARH-3) and is conducting a rigorous summative evaluation of a policy-relevant comprehensive service model developed and refined during the first two phases of YARH. The summative evaluation conducted under YARH-3 will examine the effect of Colorado’s Pathways to Success comprehensive service model (Pathways). Pathways is an intensive, coach-like case management model for youth and young adults in foster care. A large, cluster quasi-experimental impact study design will be used to test the effectiveness of Pathways in 37 counties in Colorado. The Pathways implementation study will support interpretation of the model’s impacts on outcomes and identify factors that contributed to or inhibited implementation of Pathways services in different counties; these findings will aid in the replication or improvement of future Pathways service delivery. The implementation study will systematically assess different contexts in which Pathways is being implemented and the fidelity to which Pathways is being implemented. This report describes the design of the Pathways implementation study.

"

Authors
Keith, R., Selekman, R., & Burwick, A.
Type new
Paper/Research Report
Year published new
2021

Runaway & Homeless Youth and Relationship Violence Toolkit, Guidance and Materials for Practitioners. National Resource Center on Domestic Violence.

Runaway & Homeless Youth and Relationship Violence Toolkit, Guidance and Materials for Practitioners. National Resource Center on Domestic Violence.
Abstract

Summary: Runaway & Homeless Youth and Relationship Violence Toolkit– this toolkit was developed by and for advocates, from the runaway and homeless youth and domestic violence and sexual assault fields, to help programs better address relationship violence among youth who have run away from home, are living on the streets or are homeless. Sections of the toolkit include key terms and definitions, research and resources, a look at each field, recommendations for building partnerships and services, sample materials, and help for teens in need.

Type new
Toolkit
Year published new
2021

Homelessness and Suicidality: The Role of Bullying and Parental Support

Homelessness and Suicidality: The Role of Bullying and Parental Support
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

Objective: To examine the relation between homelessness and suicidality and to test bullying as a mediator and parental support as a moderator of these relations. Background: Youth from low-income families are more likely to be bullied and in turn experience negative mental health outcomes. Parental support has been reported to mitigate the effects of stressful events, such as being bullied. However, these relations are still undocumented among youth experiencing homelessness. Method: This study included a random sample of 2,049 stably housed and 64 homeless youth enrolled in the Delaware Public Schools, grades 9 through 12, who completed the 2015 Delaware Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Hayes's PROCESS macro was used to test for a moderated mediation relation between bullying, suicidality, and parental support for homeless youth. Results: Bullying mediated the relation between homelessness and suicidality, and parental support moderated the relation between bullying and suicidality. Youth experiencing homelessness reported more bullying, which was associated with more severe suicidality. For youth experiencing homelessness with low levels of parental support, bullying was associated with more severe suicidality. Conversely, for youth with high levels of parental support, bullying was not associated with more severe suicidality. Conclusion: This study indicates that bullying is a mechanism through which homelessness and suicidality are related, while also demonstrating the importance of parental support. Implication: The increased risk of suicidality among youth experiencing homelessness who are bullied, as well as the effects of parental support, warrant attention from school personnel and youth service providers.

Authors
McCallops, K., Aviles, A.M., Earnshaw, V.A. & Palkovitz, R.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

Family Relations

Volume new
70
Year published new
2021

Adolescent Homelessness and Associated Features: Prevalence and Risk Across Eight States

Adolescent Homelessness and Associated Features: Prevalence and Risk Across Eight States
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This study utilizes data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey to estimate the prevalence of adolescent homelessness and relations to five indicators of poor functioning among students attending public high school in eight states. About 3.27% of students experienced homelessness, and nearly 7% of teens who identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) experienced homelessness. Homelessness was related to higher rates of sexual/dating violence as well as having been bullied and feeling unsafe at school. Homelessness and LGB identification predicted higher rates of more-severe problems with alcohol, hard drug use, poor grades, suicidality, and risky sexual behavior, controlling for other factors. There was no interaction effect between homelessness and LGB status, suggesting that these risks are additive.

Authors
Cutuli, J.J., Treglia, D., & Herbers, J.E.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

Child Psychiatry & Human Development

Volume new
51
Year published new
2020

Promoting Mental Health among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Questioning Youth: Implications for Practice.

Promoting Mental Health among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Questioning Youth: Implications for Practice.
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

The experiences of adolescents who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning (LGBQ) are situated in pervasive heterosexism. The potential for oppression of LGBQ youth of color and/or those holding non-Christian beliefs, are exponentially increased. Historical, social, political, and cultural contexts also influence experiences of marginalization. The ecological perspective, combined with risk and resilience theory, form a conceptual basis to clarify the reciprocal relationships between LGBQ youth and their environments. Together, these theories assist in locating optimal intervention points for mental health professionals, ensuring the best possible outcomes for this population. Utilizing these theoretical frameworks, the author discusses the importance of recognizing and advocating for strategies to promote health and mental well-being among LGBQ youth.

Authors
Mallinger, G.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

Journal of Mental Health Social Behavior

Volume new
3
Issue
1
Year published new
2021

An Introduction to Runaway and Homeless Youth for Vocational Rehabilitation Professionals

An Introduction to Runaway and Homeless Youth for Vocational Rehabilitation Professionals
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

This brief aims to develop Vocational Rehabilitation Professionals’ awareness and knowledge related to serving young people with disabilities who experience homelessness. It also provides guidance on building collaborative relationships with Runaway and Homeless Youth (RHY) service providers to assist youth with disabilities in accessing available services and support. (author abstract modified)

Authors
Bardine, D. & Palomo, A.
Type new
Brief
Organization

Vocational Rehabilitation Youth Technical Assistance Center

Year published new
2020

“TO BECOME THE BEST VERSION OF MYSELF”: Youth-Supportive Transitional Housing Programs as An Essential Resource for Addressing Youth Homelessness. Federal Data Summary: School Years 2014-15 to 2016-17

“TO BECOME THE BEST VERSION OF MYSELF”: Youth-Supportive Transitional Housing Programs as An Essential Resource for Addressing Youth Homelessness. Federal Data Summary: School Years 2014-15 to 2016-17
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

Each year, millions of youth experience homelessness across the United States, and they need proven housing models and an array of services and supports to help them achieve stability and independence – all in an effort to ultimately prevent and end youth homelessness. Covenant House International, National Network for Youth, and SchoolHouse Connection published this paper to highlight an essential, but often under-resourced, housing model for young people: transitional housing. This paper shares research demonstrating the effectiveness of transitional housing programs and argues for greater investments and wider availability of this essential housing model. This includes offering transitional programs and other types of homelessness services to minors. The need for expanded programming is great among this population, as the vast majority of students experiencing homelessness are not in shelters or other housing programs.

Authors
National Center for Homeless Education (NCHE).
Type new
Report
Organization

National Center for Homeless Education (NCHE).

Year published new
2019

“I’m losing everything all over again”: Responses from youth experiencing homelessness during the COVID-19 pandemic.

“I’m losing everything all over again”: Responses from youth experiencing homelessness during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

Purpose: Already at high-risk for adverse consequences associated with daily living, youth experiencing homelessness face additional barriers to health and well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this study was to identify the self-reported experiences and healthcare needs of youth experiencing homelessness as services in the community began to shut down at the beginning of the pandemic. Method: From May through November 2020, qualitative data were obtained by telephone or Facebook messenger from 20 youth (M = 22.4, SD = 2.64 years) who had been enrolled in a longitudinal intervention study. Results: Content analysis of qualitative data yielded 5 categories and 1 overall theme. Categories were resource availability, financial instability, mental health, relationship conflict, and maladaptive coping. The overall theme was multiple losses. Youths lost jobs, means of financial support for self and family, access to social and healthcare services, meaningful and important relationships, and skills and controls over high-risk behaviors such as substance abuse. Conclusions: Having similar experiences such as social isolation as those of high school students during the pandemic, the youths in this sample experienced multiple and simultaneous losses, needing time to grieve, and leaving them once more at high-risk for adverse outcomes.

Authors
Rew, L., Yeargain, O., Peretz, C., & Croce, E.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

Archives of Psychiatric Nursing

Year published new
2021

Student Homelessness: Lessons from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS)

Student Homelessness: Lessons from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS)
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

"SchoolHouse Connection analyzed demographic and risk factor data from the 2019 YRBS in 27 states (AK, AR, CA, CO, CT, DE, HI, ID, IL, KS, KY, LA, ME, MD, MI, MT, NH, NM, NC, ND, PA, RI, SC, SD, VT, VA, WI), comparing high school students experiencing homelessness and those not experiencing homelessness, including data on Native American students experiencing homelessness, and students experiencing homelessness who identify as transgender. This series shares the results of this analysis, tangible action steps that schools can take, and resources to promote safety and health for students experiencing homelessness. Ten subject areas are presented: Part I: Prevalence, Identification, and Action Steps for Schools ; Part II: Racial and Ethnic Equity: Disproportionality and Action Steps for Schools ; Part III: Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Equity: Disproportionality and Action Steps for Schools ; Part IV: Vulnerability of Different Homeless Situations; Part V: Missing School Due to Safety Concerns ; Part VI: Suicide and Mental Health ; Part VII: Bullying ; Part VIII: Dating Violence ; Part IX: Rape and Sexual Assault; Part X: Pregnancy Rates of High School Students Experiencing Homelessness.
"

Type new
Paper/Research Report
Year published new
2021

Reimagining homelessness assistance for children and families

Reimagining homelessness assistance for children and families
Electronically published journal article, but not part of an issue

No

Abstract

The homelessness response system in the United States is dominated by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). HUD’s definition of homelessness, program models, metrics, data, approaches, and goals have overshadowed those of other federal agencies. This policy brief argues that children, youth, and families experiencing homelessness have been poorly served by HUD’s dominance, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. It proposes that other federal agencies, specifically the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Department of Education, are better suited to provide comprehensive homeless assistance for children, youth, and families. The author draws from research, policy analyses, and testimonies of parents, service providers, and educators to make the case for a reimagined homelessness response that is child-centered and oriented toward long-term goals of economic independence, health, and wellness.

Authors
Duffield, B.
Type new
Journal Article
Journal Name

Journal of Children and Poverty

Volume new
26
Issue
2
Year published new
2020