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Stressors in Multiple Life-Domains and the Risk for Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors Among African Americans During Emerging Adulthood

Estrada-Martinez, L. M.,
Caldwell, C. H.,
Bauermeister, J. A.,
Zimmerman, M. A.
Journal Article
Year Published: 2012
Springer Science+Business Media, LLC
Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41(12):1600-1612, December 2012.
National Institute of Drug Abuse (Grant R01-DA07484) NIH Career Development Award (Grant K01-MH087242)

Drawing on Agnew's General Strain Theory, these authors explored whether different kinds of stressors are equally salient in the risk for violent behaviors and depressive symptoms among African Americans transitioning into young adulthood. They also examined the accumulation of stressors in different life domains and their effect on risks. Data were obtained from an African American subsample of an ongoing longitudinal study that followed 604 adolescents from 9th grade into adulthood. Multilevel growth curve models showed that continued exposure to perceived daily stress and racial discrimination stress increased the risk for violent behaviors during young adulthood, with a nonlinear relationship between the accumulation of stressors and risk for violence. Moreover, exposure to perceived daily stress, financial stress, neighborhood stress, and racial discrimination stress increased the risk of depressive symptoms, with a linear relationship between the accumulation of stressors and risk for depressive symptoms. Modified Author Abstract.

Correspondence to: Lorena M. Estrada-Martinez, George Warren Brown School of Social Work, Washington University in St. Louis, One Brookings Drive, Campus Box 1196, St. Louis, MO 63130; E-mail:, Website:
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