School-Based Extracurricular Activity Involvement and Adolescent Self-Esteem: A Growth-Curve Analysis
In this study, the authors investigated the influence of school-based extracurricular activity involvement on adolescent self-esteem over time. Building on prior research, they used a growth-curve analysis to examine self-esteem trajectories from adolescence (age 14) to young adulthood (age 26). Using 3 waves of data from National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n=5,399; 47.8 percent male), the analysis estimated a hierarchical growth-curve model emphasizing the effects of age and type of school-based extracurricular activity portfolio, including sports and school clubs, on self-esteem. The authors found that age had a linear relationship with self-esteem over time. Changes in both the initial level of self-esteem and the growth of self-esteem over time were significantly influenced by the type of extracurricular activity portfolio. The results suggest that young adults benefit from participation in school-based extracurricular activities during adolescence, provided that the activities in which they participate are associated with self-concepts and skill-sets that remain relevant beyond high school. Modified Author Abstract.